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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
 FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File No. 001-10308
 
AVIS BUDGET GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware06-0918165
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
379 Interpace Parkway
Parsippany,NJ07054
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(973)496-4700
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:
TITLE OF EACH CLASSTRADING SYMBOL(S)NAME OF EACH EXCHANGE ON WHICH REGISTERED
Common Stock, Par Value $.01CARThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes    No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  o  No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. þ

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  ☐  No  þ
As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $4,506,605,493 based on the closing price of its common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
As of February 9, 2024, the number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock was 35,472,745.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be mailed to stockholders in connection with the registrant’s 2024 annual meeting of stockholders (the “Annual Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
ItemDescriptionPage
PART I
1
1A
1B
1C
2
3
4
PART II
5
6
7
7A
8
9
9A
9B
9C
PART III
10
11
12
13
14
PART IV
15
16



Table of Contents
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may be considered “forward-looking statements” as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The forward-looking statements contained herein are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by any such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include information concerning our future financial performance, business strategy, projected plans and objectives. These statements may be identified by the fact that they do not relate to historical or current facts and may use words such as “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “may,” “would,” “intends,” “projects,” “estimates,” “plans,” “forecasts,” “guidance,” and similar words, expressions or phrases. The following important factors and assumptions could affect our future results and could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in such forward-looking statements. These factors include, but are not limited to:

the high level of competition in the mobility industry, including from new companies or technology, and the impact such competition may have on pricing and rental volume;

a change in our fleet costs, including as a result of a change in the cost of new vehicles, resulting from inflation or otherwise, manufacturer recalls, disruption in the supply of new vehicles, including due to labor actions by the United Auto Workers or otherwise, shortages in semiconductors used in new vehicle production, and/or a change in the price at which we dispose of used vehicles either in the used vehicle market or under repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs;

the results of operations or financial condition of the manufacturers of our vehicles, which could impact their ability to perform their payment obligations under our agreements with them, including repurchase and/or guaranteed depreciation arrangements, and/or their willingness or ability to make vehicles available to us or the mobility industry as a whole on commercially reasonable terms or at all;

levels of and volatility in travel demand, including future volatility in airline passenger traffic;

a deterioration in economic conditions, resulting in a recession or otherwise, particularly during our peak season or in key market segments;

an occurrence or threat of terrorism, the current and any future pandemic diseases, natural disasters, military conflicts, including the ongoing military conflicts in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, or civil unrest in the locations in which we operate, and the potential effects of sanctions on the world economy and markets and/or international trade;

any substantial changes in the cost or supply of fuel, vehicle parts, energy, labor or other resources on which we depend to operate our business, including as a result of a global pandemic such as COVID-19, inflation, the ongoing military conflicts in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and any embargoes on oil sales imposed on or by the Russian government;

our ability to continue to successfully implement or achieve our business plans and strategies, achieve and maintain cost savings and adapt our business to changes in mobility;

political, economic or commercial instability in the countries in which we operate, and our ability to conform to multiple and conflicting laws or regulations in those countries;

the performance of the used vehicle market from time to time, including our ability to dispose of vehicles in the used vehicle market on attractive terms;

our dependence on third-party distribution channels, third-party suppliers of other services and co-marketing arrangements with third parties;

risks related to completed or future acquisitions or investments that we may pursue, including the incurrence of incremental indebtedness to help fund such transactions and our ability to promptly and
1

Table of Contents
effectively integrate any acquired businesses or capitalize on joint ventures, partnerships and other investments;

our ability to utilize derivative instruments, and the impact of derivative instruments we utilize, which can be affected by fluctuations in interest rates, fuel prices and exchange rates, changes in government regulations and other factors;

our exposure to uninsured or unpaid claims in excess of historical levels and our ability to obtain insurance at desired levels and the cost of that insurance;

risks associated with litigation or governmental or regulatory inquiries, or any failure or inability to comply with laws, regulations or contractual obligations or any changes in laws, regulations or contractual obligations, including with respect to personally identifiable information and consumer privacy, labor and employment, and tax;

risks related to protecting the integrity of, and preventing unauthorized access to, our information technology systems or those of our third-party vendors, licensees, dealers, independent operators and independent contractors, and protecting the confidential information of our employees and customers against security breaches, including physical or cybersecurity breaches, attacks, or other disruptions, compliance with privacy and data protection regulation, and the effects of any potential increase in cyberattacks on the world economy and markets and/or international trade;

any impact on us from the actions of our third-party vendors, licensees, dealers, independent operators and independent contractors and/or disputes that may arise out of our agreements with such parties;

any major disruptions in our communication networks or information systems;

risks related to tax obligations and the effect of future changes in tax laws and accounting standards;

risks related to our indebtedness, including our substantial outstanding debt obligations, recent and future interest rate increases, which increase our financing costs, downgrades by rating agencies and our ability to incur substantially more debt;

our ability to obtain financing for our global operations, including the funding of our vehicle fleet through the issuance of asset-backed securities and use of the global lending markets;

our ability to meet the financial and other covenants contained in the agreements governing our indebtedness, or to obtain a waiver or amendment of such covenants should we be unable to meet such covenants;

significant changes in the assumptions and estimates that are used in our impairment testing for goodwill or intangible assets, which could result in a significant impairment of our goodwill or intangible assets; and

other business, economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory, political or technological factors affecting our operations, pricing or services.

We operate in a continuously changing business environment and new risk factors emerge from time to time. New risk factors, factors beyond our control, or changes in the impact of identified risk factors may cause actual results to differ materially from those set forth in any forward-looking statements. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as a prediction of actual results. Moreover, we do not assume responsibility if future results are materially different from those forecasted or anticipated. Other factors and assumptions not identified above, including those discussed in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” set forth in Part II, Item 7, in “Risk Factors” set forth in Part I, Item 1A and in other portions of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, may contain forward-looking statements and involve uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements.

Although we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, any or all of our forward-looking statements may prove to be inaccurate and we can make no guarantees about our future performance. Should unknown risks or
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uncertainties materialize or underlying assumptions prove inaccurate, actual results could differ materially from past results and/or those anticipated, estimated or projected. We undertake no obligation to release any revisions to any forward-looking statements, to report events or to report the occurrence of unanticipated events. For any forward-looking statements contained in any document, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
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PART I

 ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Except as expressly indicated or unless the context otherwise requires, the “Company,” “Avis Budget,” “we,” “our” or “us” means Avis Budget Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Unless the context requires otherwise, these references and references to our brands do not include the operations of our licensees, as further discussed below.
OVERVIEW
We are a leading global provider of mobility solutions through our three most recognized brands, Avis, Budget and Zipcar, as well as several other brands, well recognized in their respective markets. Our brands offer a range of options, from car and truck rental to car sharing. We license the use of the Avis, Budget, Zipcar and other brands’ trademarks to licensees in areas in which we do not operate directly. We and our licensees operate our brands in approximately 180 countries throughout the world. We generally maintain a leading share of airport car rental revenues in North America, Europe and Australasia, and we operate a leading car sharing network and one of the leading commercial truck rental businesses in the United States. We believe the range of options from our diversified brands enjoy complementary demand patterns with mid-week commercial demand balanced by weekend leisure demand.

On average, our global rental fleet totaled approximately 691,500 vehicles in 2023. We completed nearly 39 million vehicle rental transactions worldwide and generated total revenues of approximately $12 billion during 2023. Our brands and mobility solutions have an extended global reach with approximately 10,250 rental locations throughout the world, including approximately 3,700 locations operated by our licensees.

We categorize our operations into two reportable business segments:

Americas - consisting primarily of (i) vehicle rental operations in North America, South America, Central America and the Caribbean, (ii) car sharing operations in certain of these markets, and (iii) licensees in certain areas in which we do not operate directly.

International - consisting primarily of (i) vehicle rental operations in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and Australasia, (ii) car sharing operations in certain of these markets, and (iii) licensees in certain areas in which we do not operate directly.

Additional discussion of our reportable segments is included in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in Note 21 – Segment Information to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

OUR STRATEGY

For 2024, we expect our strategy to continue to primarily focus on customer experience and costs to strengthen our Company, maximize profitability, and deliver stakeholder value. To execute our strategy, we expect to continue to leverage marketing and invest in technology and infrastructure to support our vehicle related rentals. With respect to costs, we aim to achieve operational excellence and invest strategically to lower costs over the long term. For customer experience, we seek to enhance the end to end customer journey by leveraging technology to, among other things, streamline reservations, and modernize the pick-up, exit, on rent and return experiences.

OUR BRANDS AND OPERATIONS

OUR BRANDS

Our Avis, Budget and Zipcar brands are three of the most recognized brands in our industry. We believe that each of our brands is positioned to be embraced by different target customers, and we see benefits and savings from our brands sharing some of the same facilities, systems, and administrative infrastructure. In addition, we are able to recognize benefits as a result of complementary demand patterns with commercial rentals occurring primarily
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on business days and leisure rentals occurring primarily on holidays and weekends. We also operate the Payless and Apex brands in the value segment of the car rental industry, augmenting our Avis, Budget and Zipcar brands. In addition, our Maggiore and Morini Rent brands in Italy, FranceCars brand in France and Turiscar brand in Portugal further extend our offerings.

The following graphs present the approximate composition of our revenues in 2023.
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*     Includes Budget Truck.
**     Includes Zipcar and other operating brands.

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The Avis brand provides high-quality vehicle rental and other mobility solutions at price points generally above non-branded and value-branded vehicle rental companies and serves the premium commercial and leisure segments of the travel industry. We operate or license Avis vehicle rental locations at virtually all of the largest commercial airports and cities in the world.

The table below presents the approximate number of Avis locations as of December 31, 2023.

Avis Locations*
AmericasInternationalTotal
Company-operated locations2,015 1,025 3,040 
Licensee locations445 1,625 2,070 
Total Avis Locations2,460 2,650 5,110 
*     Certain locations support multiple brands.

In 2023, our Company-operated Avis locations generated total revenues of approximately $6.8 billion. The following graphs present the approximate composition of our Avis revenues in 2023.
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We also license the Avis brand to independent commercial owners who operate approximately half of our locations worldwide and generally pay royalty fees to us based on a percentage of applicable revenues. In 2023, these royalty fees totaled approximately 1% of our Avis revenues.


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We offer Avis customers a variety of premium services, including:

the Avis mobile application, which allows customers a unique and innovative way to control many elements of their rental experience via their mobile devices without the need to visit the rental counter. The Avis mobile application also allows customers to track Avis shuttle buses to rental locations, find their vehicle, and locate nearby gas stations and parking facilities;

Avis Preferred, our frequent renter rewards program that offers counter bypass at major airport locations;

invited or earned customer status levels allowing for upgrades and counter bypass;

Avis QuickPass, a feature on the Avis mobile application that allows customers to bypass the counter. In many United States locations, QuickPass also allows customers to choose, exchange or upgrade their car upon arrival and utilize a unique code to exit via our automated Express Exit for a completely contactless rental experience;

availability of a selection of luxury vehicles through our Avis Signature Series, as well as premium, sport, performance and electrified vehicles;

access to satellite radio service, mobile WiFi devices, and GPS navigation;

Avis rental services such as roadside assistance, fuel service options, e-receipts, electronic toll collection services that allow customers to pay highway tolls without waiting in toll booth lines, and amenities such as Avis Cares, a full range of special products and services for drivers and passengers with disabilities;

for our corporate customers, Avis Budget Group Business Intelligence, a proprietary reporting solution that provides a centralized reporting tool and customer reporting portal for corporate clients in North America and Europe, enabling them to easily view and analyze their rental activity, allowing them to better manage their travel budgets and monitor employee compliance with applicable travel policies.
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Car Rental

The Budget brand is a leading supplier of vehicle rental and other mobility solutions focused primarily on more value-conscious customers. We operate or license Budget car rental locations at airports and in cities worldwide.

The table below presents the approximate number of Budget locations as of December 31, 2023.

Budget Locations*
AmericasInternationalTotal
Company-operated locations1,430 790 2,220 
Licensee locations485 1,030 1,515 
Total Budget Locations1,915 1,820 3,735 
*     Certain locations support multiple brands.

We also license the Budget brand to independent commercial owners who generally pay royalty fees to us based on a percentage of applicable revenues. In 2023, these royalty fees totaled approximately 1% of our Budget revenues.

Budget offers its customers several products and services similar to Avis, such as refueling options, roadside assistance, electronic toll collection, and other supplemental rental products, emailed receipts and special rental rates for frequent renters. In addition, Budget’s mobile application allows customers to reserve, modify and cancel reservations on their mobile device, and its Fastbreak and QuickPass service expedites rental service for frequent travelers.


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Budget Truck

Our Budget Truck rental business is one of the largest local and one-way truck and cargo van rental businesses in the United States. As of December 31, 2023, our Budget Truck fleet is comprised of approximately 21,000 vehicles that are rented through a network of approximately 440 dealer-operated and 415 Company-operated locations throughout the continental United States. These dealers are independently-owned businesses that generally operate other retail service businesses. In addition to their principal businesses, the dealers rent our light- and medium-duty trucks and commercial cargo vans to customers and are responsible for collecting payments on our behalf. The dealers receive a commission on all truck, van and ancillary equipment rentals. The Budget Truck rental business serves both the light commercial and consumer sectors. The light commercial sector consists of a wide range of businesses that rent light- to medium-duty trucks, which we define as trucks having a gross vehicle weight of less than 26,000 pounds, for a variety of commercial applications. The consumer sector consists primarily of individuals who rent trucks to move household goods on either a one-way or local basis.

In 2023, our Company-operated Budget vehicle rental operations generated total revenues of approximately $4.5 billion. The following graphs present the approximate composition of our Budget revenues in 2023.
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Zipcar is a leading car sharing network, driven by a mission to enable simple and responsible urban living. With its wide variety of self-service vehicles available by the hour or day, Zipcar offers comprehensive, convenient and flexible car sharing options in urban areas and college campuses in hundreds of cities and towns. Zipcar provides its members on-demand, self-service vehicles in reserved parking spaces located in neighborhoods, business districts, office complexes and college campuses, as an alternative to car ownership. We continue to offer our Zipcar Flex product in London providing one-way rentals, including to and from Heathrow airport, which can be parked in public on-street parking spots in designated areas of the city.

Other Brands

Our other brands include the following:

Payless, a leading rental car supplier serving the deep-value segment of the industry, which we license or operate in approximately 270 locations worldwide, including more than 160 locations operated by licensees and approximately 110 Company-operated locations.

Company-operated Payless locations are primarily located in North America, the majority of which are at or near major airports. Payless’ rental fees are often lower than those of larger, more established vehicle rental brands.

The Payless business model allows us to extend the life-cycle of a portion of our rental fleet, as we “cascade” certain vehicles that exceed certain Avis and Budget age or mileage thresholds to be used by Payless.


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Maggiore and Morini Rent, leading vehicle rental brands in Italy.

Maggiore has a strong local reputation and benefits from a strong presence at airport, off-airport and railway locations and from the integration of our existing operations and rental fleet management expertise. We operate or license in approximately 140 rental locations throughout the country.
Morini Rent offers rental of cars, vans, and refrigerated vehicles. We operate in approximately 45 rental locations throughout the country.

FranceCars, which operates one of the largest light commercial vehicle rental fleets in France, in approximately 70 rental locations, and leverages our existing operational processes and local customer base.

Apex, which operates in approximately 25 rental locations at, or near, major airports and in several metropolitan cities in New Zealand and Australia.

Turiscar, a leading vehicle rental brand in Portugal, which operates primarily in the corporate market, including light commercial vehicles, at approximately 30 rental locations throughout the country.
ACL Hire and McNicoll Hire, providers of quality vehicle rental and maintenance services in the UK, with a strong focus on light commercial vehicles.
RESERVATIONS, MARKETING AND SALES

Reservations

Our customers can make vehicle rental reservations through our brand-specific websites and toll-free reservation centers, through our brand-specific mobile applications, online travel agencies, travel agents or through selected partners, including many major airlines, associations and retailers. Travel agents can access our reservation systems through all major global distribution systems, which provide information with respect to rental locations, vehicle availability and applicable rate structures.

Our Zipcar members can reserve vehicles through Zipcar’s reservation system, which is accessible online or on a mobile device, by the hour or day, at rates that include fuel, secondary insurance and other costs typically associated with vehicle ownership.

Marketing and Sales

We support our brands through a range of marketing channels and campaigns, including traditional media as well as digital media, including internet and email marketing, social media, streaming services, and mobile device applications. In 2023, we launched the Plan On Us campaign as the Avis brand platform to highlight the trust our customers have in us. We also market through sponsorships of major sports entities and charitable organizations. We utilize a customer relationship management system that enables us to deliver more targeted and relevant offers to customers across online and offline channels, including an expedited and contactless rental process and loyalty programs that reward frequent renters with free rental days and car class upgrades.

We are able to reach and merchandise cars and rentals to a diverse demographic of consumers through our strategic partnerships with airlines, associations and hotel companies, and we maintain strong links to the travel industry. In addition, we have developed relationships that provide brand exposure and access to new customers, including deals to provide vehicles to ride-hail drivers in cities across North America.

In 2023, approximately 50% of vehicle rental transactions originating from Avis locations were generated by travelers who rented from Avis under contracts between Avis and their employers or through membership in an organization with which Avis has a contractual affiliation. We offer Avis Budget Group Business Intelligence, an online portal complete with rental summary dashboards, visualizations and detailed reports that provides our corporate customers with insight into their program’s performance, giving them direct access to more data in a customer-facing portal offering useful data insights, including options to customize and schedule reports. Avis also
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maintains marketing relationships with other travel partners through which we are able to offer their customers incentives to rent from Avis.

Additionally, we offer Unlimited Rewards, our loyalty incentive program for travel agents, and Avis and Budget programs for small businesses that offer discounted rates, central billing options and rental credits to members.

Our Zipcar brand utilizes a diverse set of marketing and sales strategies to acquire and engage members, including digital marketing, email and in-app messaging, and social media engagement. Zipcar maintains close relationships with universities that provide access to campuses and various marketing channels to attract students who, upon graduation, may continue their relationship with us. Through our Zipcar for Business program, we also offer direct-bill accounts and employee benefit programs to companies and governments that support the use of Zipcar vehicles.

LICENSING

We have licensees in approximately 175 countries throughout the world. Royalty fee revenues derived from our vehicle rental licensees in 2023 totaled $133 million, with approximately $92 million in our International segment and $41 million in our Americas segment. Licensed locations are independently operated by our licensees and range from large operations at major airport locations and territories encompassing entire countries to relatively small operations in suburban or rural locations. Our licensees generally maintain separate independently owned and operated fleets. Royalties generated from licensing provide us with a source of high-margin revenue because there are relatively limited additional costs associated with fees paid by licensees to us. In some geographies we facilitate one-way vehicle rentals between Company-operated and licensed locations, which enables us to offer an integrated network of locations to our customers.

We generally enjoy good relationships with our licensees and meet regularly with them at regional, national and international meetings. Our relationships with our licensees are governed by license agreements that grant the licensee the right to operate independently operated vehicle rental businesses in certain territories. Our license agreements generally provide our licensees with the exclusive right to operate under one or more of our brands in their assigned territory. These agreements impose obligations on the licensee regarding its operations, and most agreements restrict the licensee’s ability to sell, transfer or assign its rights granted under the license agreement or to change the control of its ownership without our consent.

The terms of our license agreements, including duration, royalty fees and termination provisions, vary based upon brand, territory, and original signing date. Royalty fees are generally structured to be a percentage of the licensee’s gross rental income. We maintain the right to monitor the operations of licensees and, when applicable, can declare a licensee to be in default under its license agreement. We perform audits as part of our program to assure licensee compliance with brand quality standards and contract provisions. Generally, we can terminate license agreements for certain defaults, including failure to pay royalties or to adhere to our operational standards. Upon termination of a license agreement, the licensee is prohibited from using our brand names and related marks in any business. In the United States, these license relationships constitute “franchises” under most federal and state laws regulating the offer and sale of franchises and the relationship of the parties to a franchise agreement.

We continue to optimize the Avis, Budget and Payless brands by issuing new license agreements and periodically acquiring licensees to grow our revenues and expand our global presence. Discussion of our acquisitions is included in Note 6 – Acquisitions to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

OTHER REVENUES

In addition to revenues derived from time and mileage fees from our vehicle rentals and licensee royalties, we generate revenues from our customers through the sale and/or rental of optional ancillary products and services. We offer products to customers that will enhance their rental experience, including:

collision and loss damage waivers, under which we agree to relieve a customer from financial responsibility arising from vehicle damage incurred during the rental;

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additional/supplemental liability insurance or personal accident/effects insurance products which provide customers with additional protections for personal or third-party losses incurred;

products for driving convenience such as fuel service options, roadside assistance services, electronic toll collection services, access to satellite radio, mobile WiFi devices, GPS navigation and child safety seat rentals; and

products that supplement truck rental including automobile towing equipment and other moving accessories, such as hand trucks, furniture pads and moving supplies.

We also receive payment from our customers for certain operating expenses that we incur, including vehicle licensing fees, as well as airport concession fees that we pay in exchange for the right to operate at airports and other locations. In addition, we collect membership fees in connection with our car sharing business.

OUR FLEET

We offer a wide variety of vehicles in our rental fleet, including luxury vehicles, electrified vehicles, specialty-use vehicles and light commercial vehicles. Our fleet consists primarily of vehicles from the current and immediately preceding model year. We maintain a single fleet of vehicles for Avis and Budget in countries where we operate both brands. A substantial majority of Zipcar’s fleet is dedicated to use by Zipcar.

Fleet Purchases

We maintain a diverse rental fleet, in which no vehicle manufacturer represented more than 23% of our 2023 fleet purchases, and we regularly adjust our fleet levels to be consistent with demand. We participate in a variety of vehicle purchase programs with major vehicle manufacturers. In 2023, we primarily purchased vehicles from Stellantis N.V., General Motors Company, Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance, Toyota Motor Corporation, Hyundai Motor Group, Ford Motor Company and Volkswagen Group.

Fleet costs represented approximately 17% of our aggregate expenses in 2023. Fleet costs can vary from year to year based on the prices at which we are able to purchase and dispose of rental vehicles, the mix of risk and program vehicles, holding periods, and overall fleet mix.

In 2023, approximately 10% of our average rental fleet was comprised of vehicles subject to agreements requiring automobile manufacturers to repurchase vehicles at a specified price during a specified time period or guarantee our rate of depreciation on the vehicles during a specified period of time; or vehicles subject to operating leases with a fixed lease period and interest rate. We refer to vehicles subject to these agreements as “program” vehicles and vehicles not subject to these agreements as “risk” vehicles because we retain the risk associated with such vehicles’ residual values at the time of their disposition. Our agreements with automobile manufacturers typically require that we pay more for program vehicles and maintain them in our fleet for a minimum number of months and impose certain return conditions, including vehicle condition and mileage requirements. When we return program vehicles to the manufacturer, we receive the price guaranteed at the time of purchase and are therefore protected from fluctuations in the price of previously-owned vehicles in the wholesale market. In 2023, approximately 20% of the vehicles we disposed of were program vehicles sold pursuant to repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs. Over the past several years, program vehicles have comprised of a decreasing proportion of our fleet. The approximate percentage of program vehicles in our average rental fleet within each of our reporting segments in 2023 was 40% for International and less than 1% for the Americas. The future percentages of program and risk vehicles in our fleet will depend on several factors, including our expectations for future used vehicle prices, our seasonal needs and the availability and attractiveness of manufacturers’ repurchase and guaranteed depreciation programs.


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Fleet Dispositions

We dispose of our risk vehicles largely through alternative disposition channels, including direct-to-consumer, online auctions, and direct-to-dealer sales, as well as through more traditional automobile auctions. Alternative disposition channels provide the opportunity to increase vehicle sales prices and reduce relevant fleet costs compared to selling vehicles at auctions. We sell vehicles direct to consumers through our retail locations, and through RubyCar, our online retail sales platform, which offers customers the ability to purchase well-maintained, late-model rental vehicles from our fleet. We dispose of our program vehicles in accordance with repurchase or guaranteed depreciation programs with major vehicle manufacturers.

Fleet Utilization

In 2023, our average quarterly vehicle rental fleet size ranged from a low of approximately 621,000 vehicles in the first quarter to a high of approximately 754,000 vehicles in the third quarter. Average quarterly fleet utilization for 2023, which is based on the number of rental days (or portion thereof) that vehicles are rented compared to the total amount of time that vehicles are available for rent, ranged from approximately 65% to approximately 71%. Our average car rental fleet size and utilization are typically highest in the summer months. Our calculation of utilization may not be comparable to other companies’ calculation of similarly titled metrics.

Fleet Maintenance

We place a strong emphasis on the quality of our vehicle maintenance for customer safety and customer satisfaction reasons, and because quick and proper repairs are critical to fleet utilization. To accomplish this task, we have developed and continue to evolve specialized training programs for our technicians. Our Supply Chain Department reviews, distributes, and makes accessible original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) technical service bulletins that can be retrieved electronically at our repair locations. In addition, we have implemented policies and procedures to promptly address manufacturer recalls as part of our ongoing maintenance and repair efforts to maximize the customer experience.

CUSTOMER SERVICE

Our commitment to delivering a consistently high level of customer service across all of our brands is a critical element of our success and business strategy. Our Customer Led, Service Driven program focuses on continually improving the overall customer experience based on our research of customer service practices, improved customer insights, executing our customer relationship management strategy, delivering customer-centric employee training and leveraging our mobile applications technology and the enriched experience it provides our customers. In addition, our social media platform allows us to engage with our customers in their preferred channel, which enables us to meet the needs of our customers while promoting our brands to gain more market share and drive customer loyalty.

The employees at our Company-operated locations are trained and empowered to resolve many customer issues at the location level. We also continuously track customer-satisfaction levels by sending location-specific surveys to recent customers and utilize detailed reports and tracking to assess and identify ways that we can improve our customer service delivery and the overall customer experience. Our location-specific surveys ask customers to evaluate their overall satisfaction with their rental experience and the likelihood that they will recommend our brands, as well as key elements of the rental experience. Results are analyzed in aggregate and by location to help further enhance our service levels to our customers.

We also offer rental options that provide greater control, self-service and contactless capabilities. While our mobile applications provide a fast customer experience, a company representative is available to meet customers’ needs. Our survey platform includes specific questions to learn more about individual preferences and find innovative ways to better serve and anticipate our customers’ needs.

AIRPORT CONCESSION AGREEMENTS

We generally operate our vehicle rental and car sharing services at airports under concession agreements with airport authorities, pursuant to which we typically make airport concession payments and/or lease payments. In general, concession fees for on-airport locations are based on a percentage of total commissionable revenues (as
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defined by each airport authority), often subject to minimum annual guaranteed amounts. Concessions are typically awarded by airport authorities every three to ten years based upon competitive bids. Our concession agreements with the various airport authorities generally impose certain minimum operating requirements, provide for relocation in the event of future construction and in some cases provide for abatement of the minimum annual guarantee in the event of extended low passenger volume.
OTHER BUSINESS CONSIDERATIONS
SEASONALITY

Our operating results are subject to variability due to seasonality, macroeconomic conditions and other factors. Car rental volumes tend to be associated with the travel industry, particularly airline passenger volumes, or enplanements, which in turn tend to reflect general economic conditions. Our operations are also seasonal, with the third quarter of the year historically having been our strongest due to the increased level of leisure travel during the quarter. We have a partially variable cost structure and routinely adjust the size, and therefore the cost, of our rental fleet in response to fluctuations in demand.

The following chart presents our quarterly revenues for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023.
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COMPETITION

The competitive environment for our industry is generally characterized by intense price and service competition among global, local and regional competitors. Competition in our vehicle rental operations is based primarily upon price, customer service quality, including usability of booking systems and ease of rental and return, vehicle availability, reliability, rental locations, product innovation and national or international distribution. In addition, competition is also influenced strongly by advertising, marketing, loyalty programs and brand reputation. We believe the prominence and service reputation of our brands, extensive worldwide ownership of mobility solutions and commitment to innovation provides us with a competitive advantage.

The use of technology has increased pricing transparency among vehicle rental companies and other mobility solutions providers enabling cost-conscious customers to more easily compare on the Internet and their mobile devices the rates available for the mobility solutions that fit their needs. This transparency has further increased the prevalence and intensity of price competition in the industry.

Our vehicle rental operations compete primarily with Enterprise Holdings, Inc., which operates the Enterprise, National and Alamo car rental brands; Hertz Global Holdings, Inc., which operates the Hertz, Dollar and Thrifty brands; Europcar Mobility Group, which operates the Europcar, Goldcar, InterRent, Buchbinder, Fox Rent A Car and Ubeeqo brands; and Sixt SE. We also compete with smaller local and regional vehicle rental companies for vehicle rental market share, and with ride-hailing companies largely for short length trips in urban areas. Our Zipcar brand also competes with various local and regional mobility companies, including mobility services sponsored by several auto manufacturers, ride-hailing and car sharing companies and other technology players in the mobility industry. Our Budget Truck operations in the United States competes with several other local, regional
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and nationwide truck rental companies including U-Haul International, Inc., Penske Truck Leasing Corporation, Ryder System, Inc., Enterprise Truck Rental, and Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.

INSURANCE AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Our vehicle rental and corporate operations expose us to various types of claims for bodily injury, death and property damage related to the use of our vehicles and/or properties, as well as general employment-related matters stemming from our operations. In addition, we currently purchase insurance coverage to limit our exposure to legal fees and expenses resulting from cybersecurity breaches. We generally retain economic exposure for liability to third parties arising from vehicle rental and car sharing services in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico in accordance with the minimum financial responsibility requirements (“MFRs”) and primacy of coverage laws of the relevant jurisdiction. In certain cases, we assume liability above applicable MFRs, up to $5 million per occurrence, other than in cases involving a negligent act on the part of the Company, for which we purchase insurance coverage for exposures beyond retained amounts from a combination of unaffiliated excess insurers.

In Europe, we insure the risk of liability to third parties arising from vehicle rental and car sharing services in accordance with local regulatory requirements primarily through insurance policies provided by unaffiliated insurers. We retain a portion of the insured risk of liability through local deductibles, and by reinsuring certain risks through our captive insurance subsidiary AEGIS Motor Insurance Limited. AEGIS Motor Insurance Limited reinsures certain risks through unaffiliated companies, which limits its liabilities. In Australasia, motor vehicle bodily injury insurance coverage is compulsory and provided upon vehicle registration. In addition, we provide our customers with third-party property damage insurance through an unaffiliated third-party insurer. We retain a share of property damage risk through local deductibles.

We offer our United States customers a range of optional insurance products and coverages such as supplemental liability insurance, personal accident insurance, personal effects protection, emergency sickness protection, automobile towing protection and cargo insurance, which create additional risk exposure for us. When a customer elects to purchase supplemental liability insurance or other optional insurance related products, we typically retain economic exposure to loss, since the insurance is provided by an unaffiliated insurer that is reinsuring its exposure through our captive insurance subsidiary, Constellation Reinsurance Company Limited. Additional personal accident insurance offered to our customers in Europe is provided by a third-party insurer, and primarily reinsured by our Avis Budget Europe International Reinsurance Limited subsidiary. We otherwise bear these and other risks, except to the extent that the risks are transferred through insurance or contractual arrangements.

OUR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

We rely primarily on a combination of trademark, trade secret and copyright laws, as well as contractual provisions with employees and third parties, to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. The service marks “Avis,” “Budget” and “Zipcar” and related marks or designs incorporating such terms and related logos and marks such as “Plan On Us,” “We Try Harder,” “We Know The Road” and “Own The Trip, Not The Car”, “Preferred” and “Fastbreak” are material to our vehicle rental and car sharing businesses. Our subsidiaries and licensees actively use these marks. All of the material marks used by Avis, Budget and Zipcar are registered (or have applications pending for registration) with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office as well as in foreign jurisdictions. Our subsidiaries own the marks and other intellectual property, including the Wizard system, used in our business. We also own trademarks and logos related to the “Apex Car Rentals” brand in Australia and New Zealand, the “Payless Car Rental” brand in the United States and several other countries, the “Maggiore” and “Morini Rent” brands in Italy, the “FranceCars” brand in France and the “Turiscar” brand in Portugal. Our subsidiaries have also filed patent applications pertaining to fleet and connected car technology in the United States and other countries.

ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL & GOVERNANCE (“ESG”)

We recognize our role as one of the world’s leading mobility solutions providers. As a result, we are focused on supporting the transition to a low-carbon economy and employ practices designed to promote a more fair, just and equal workplace and community.

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The Environment: We are committed to offering safe and low-carbon transportation solutions:

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: As our corporate and leisure customers become increasingly aware and concerned about pollution and congestion caused by vehicles, we aim to provide more sustainable transportation solutions by leveraging connected vehicle technology and introducing more fuel efficient, low emission, and electric vehicles.

Sustainable Operations Improvements: We are driving the efficiencies needed to reduce our environmental impact and enhance the sustainability of our operations. These are mainly driven by improvements in vehicle preventive maintenance, the incorporation of green building practices and by complying with environmental regulations.

Carbon Offset Program: We work closely with our corporate customers to help them achieve their environmental impact reduction targets through our carbon offset program.

More Sustainable Fleet: We are actively anticipating and driving changes in mobility. Connected and autonomous vehicles are likely to become a common feature worldwide, along with an increased use of electric and shared vehicles, which is why we are building on our core experience, data intelligence and technology to develop entirely new lines of business and extend our offering and capabilities for our customers, businesses and cities. Our efforts include:

Car Sharing: Zipcar continually improves its car sharing technology, which includes its mobile member app, in-vehicle telematics hardware and reservation, fleet management and community management systems. Zipcar’s technology platform is key to providing a successful self-service experience for its members and effectively managing a distributed fleet of vehicles and associated parking locations.

Connected Vehicles: Connected vehicles support our ability to reduce emissions through a steadfast focus on fleet maintenance and optimization.

Fleet Efficiency: We offer our customers the opportunity to choose from a wide variety of vehicles, including fuel-efficient, hybrid, or electric vehicles at almost all of our locations. Our fleet consists primarily of vehicles from the current and immediately preceding model year - this ensures the highest possible standards of air emissions control.

Social: We believe that our success has its foundation in how we treat our employees. We seek to foster an environment where communication among our employees is open, honest, and respectful; performance is recognized; growth is encouraged; and accomplishments - individual and collective - are celebrated. We also seek to support the well-being and development of the people we employ and the communities in which they work. Our efforts include:

Giving Back: We are a global company with local reach in numerous communities around the world. Whether we work individually or as a team, doing the right thing and supporting our communities helps employees feel their work is more than just a job, and makes them feel proud to be part of the Avis Budget Group family. As well as encouraging our employees to volunteer in their local communities, we are committed to supporting a variety of causes and charities that aid people in crisis situations.

Supporting Community Resilience: We have developed strong competencies in responding to business disruptions. Whether the disruption is man-made, an extreme weather event or a global health crisis, our business continuity programs are central to how we respond in times of crisis. Our program’s focus is on preparing and protecting our people, property and infrastructure. We utilize an “all hands on deck” approach within our incident management and command structure to ensure that we respond as rapidly and effectively as possible. We have also developed longstanding partnerships with leading national disaster response agencies, which strengthen our ability to provide support to affected customers, employees and communities.

Governance: Our Board of Directors monitors the effectiveness of our policy and decision making, including with respect to ESG, on the current and long-term value of our company.
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Our most recent Corporate Governance documents are available on the Company’s website. The information contained on the Company’s website is not included in, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

OUR HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT

Our human capital objectives include identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and future or prospective employees. Our compensation program is designed to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified employees and executives.

Employees

As of December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 24,500 people worldwide, of whom approximately 6,500 were employed on a part-time basis. Of our approximately 24,500 employees, approximately 8,500 were employed in our International segment. In our Americas segment, the majority of our employees are at-will employees and, therefore, not subject to any type of employment contract or agreement. In our International segment, we enter into employment contracts and agreements in those countries in which such relationships are mandatory or customary. The provisions of these agreements correspond in each case with the required or customary terms in the subject jurisdiction. Many of our employees are covered by a variety of union contracts and governmental regulations affecting, among other things, compensation, job retention rights and pensions.

We strive to maintain satisfactory relationships with all of our employees, including the unions and work councils representing these employees. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 28% of our employees were covered by collective bargaining or similar agreements with various labor unions. We believe our employee relations are satisfactory. We have never experienced a large-scale work stoppage.

Employee Benefits

Supporting our employees with the right benefits is one of the most important things we do. We understand benefits are a key element to a total reward package, so ensuring we provide meaningful benefit programs and resources across the globe is an integral part of how we reward employees, including with respect to healthcare and retirement. As a global company, benefits will vary by country to reflect local practices and cultures, but our commitment to providing comprehensive and meaningful benefits and resources is consistent across the world. We continuously review and, when necessary, update our programs to ensure they remain flexible, competitive, and aligned to what is important for our employees and their families.

Global Gender Pay Equity

To ensure we are compensating both men and women employees fairly and equitably, we utilize a global Center of Excellence total rewards function which standardizes and harmonizes our rewards programs across all countries. As a result, we have established pay programs that provide for equal incentive pay opportunity for all employees in same or similar positions across the globe. Additionally, we utilize global guidelines and standards to inform compensation decisions for all new hires and promotions. To monitor our performance for our management employees, we evaluate base salary placement relative to our internal salary ranges for men and women. For our hourly field workforce (non-management employees), we maintain pay equity through our standardized compensation practices in which all employees begin at the same start rate, based on their location and position, and annual pay increases are applied consistently to all employees based on tenure.

Recruitment and Development

Our talent strategy is solidly rooted in attracting and retaining a diverse workforce. Our Talent Acquisition teams have strong relationships with organizations that help us reach a diverse pool of candidates including those who identify as LGBTQ+ and those with disabilities. We believe that our employees possess a wealth of knowledge that could and should be shared with others. We have a wealth of established learning and talent programs that we make available to our employees, including a digital learning platform that has transformed the way we produce, manage and share learning resources.

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Diversity, Inclusion and Belonging

We embrace diversity and inclusion. We value each employee around the world, whose talent, skill and personality has helped establish us as a leading global mobility provider. We believe that embracing and promoting diversity is a critical component of our success and we have committed to creating a safe, supportive and inclusive environment. As an equal-opportunity employer, we are proud to provide an inclusive workplace that embraces and celebrates demographic, cultural and lifestyle differences. We strive to have a diverse and inclusive work environment where employees feel valued for their uniqueness, recognized for their diverse talents, and where they can bring their whole selves to work. We have created employee resource groups (“ERGs”) to advocate for equality, provide opportunities for advancement, and facilitate discussion around better practices and resources to advance more targeted cultural and racial understanding and diversity. These ERGs provide a space where employees can foster connections and develop in a supportive environment. As of the end of 2023, we had the following ERGs: Power of Women, Power of Veterans, Power of Pride, and Power of Color.

Health and Safety

The health and safety of our employees is our highest priority because our people are our most valuable asset. Consistent with our operating philosophy, we are committed to safety and our core belief is that health and safety is every employee’s responsibility, not only for our employees but for our customers, vendors, and all stakeholders.

Well-being

We take a holistic approach to well-being. We understand that to deliver our best performance, our employees need to be healthy and happy in all areas of their lives. Our well-being program focuses on helping our people achieve all aspects of wellness through encouraging habits that promote physical, emotional and financial well-being.

REGULATION

We are subject to a wide variety of laws and regulations in the countries in which we operate, including those relating to, among others, consumer protection, insurance products and rates, franchising, customer privacy and data protection, securities and public disclosure, competition and antitrust, environmental matters, taxes, automobile-related liability, corruption and anti-bribery, labor and employment matters, health and safety, claims management, automotive retail sales, currency-exchange and other various banking and financial industry regulations, cost and fee recovery, the protection of our trademarks and other intellectual property, ESG matters and local ownership or investment requirements. Additional information about the regulations that we are subject to can be found in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

COMPANY INFORMATION

Our principal executive office is located at 379 Interpace Parkway, Parsippany, New Jersey 07054 (our telephone number is 973-496-4700). The Company files electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) required reports on Form 8-K, Form 10-Q and Form 10-K; proxy materials; registration statements and other forms or reports as required. Certain of the Company’s officers, directors and stockholders also file statements of beneficial ownership and of changes in beneficial ownership on Forms 3, 4 and 5 with the SEC. Such materials may be accessed electronically on the SEC’s Internet site (sec.gov). The Company maintains a website (avisbudgetgroup.com) and copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, Section 16 reports, proxy materials and any amendments to these reports filed or furnished with the SEC are available free of charge in the Investor Relations section of our website (ir.avisbudgetgroup.com), as soon as reasonably practicable after filing with the SEC. Copies of our board committee charters, Codes of Conduct and Ethics, Corporate Governance Guidelines and other corporate governance information are also available on our website. If the Company should decide to amend any of its board committee charters, Codes of Conduct and Ethics or other corporate governance documents, copies of such amendments will be made available to the public through the Company’s website. The information contained on the Company’s website is not included in, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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 ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The following is a discussion of the risks, uncertainties and assumptions that we believe are material to our business and should be considered carefully in conjunction with all of the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Although the risks are organized by headings, and each risk is discussed separately, many are interrelated. In addition to the factors discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the factors described in this item could, individually or in the aggregate, cause our actual results to differ materially from those described in any forward-looking statements. Should unknown risks or uncertainties materialize or underlying assumptions prove inaccurate, actual results could materially differ from past results and/or those anticipated, estimated or projected.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR INDUSTRY AND THE BROADER ECONOMY

We face risks related to the high level of competition in the mobility industry.

The mobility industry is highly competitive, with price being one of the primary factors. To the extent that our competitors reduce their pricing and we do not provide competitive pricing, or if price increases we implement make us less competitive, we risk losing rental volume, and reducing the chances of success for bids for customer accounts. If competitive pressures lead us to lose rental volume or match any downward pricing and we are unable to reduce our operating costs, then our financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely impacted.

Additionally, pricing in the vehicle rental industry is impacted by the size of rental fleets and the supply of vehicles available for rent. Any significant fluctuations in the supply of rental vehicles, including as a result of actions taken by our competitors that increases fleet significantly above market demand, could negatively affect our pricing, operating plans or results of operations.

The competitive environment for our mobility services has become more intense as additional companies, including automobile manufacturers, ride-hailing companies, car sharing companies and other technology players in the mobility industry enter our existing markets or expand their operations, which may affect demand for rental vehicles. Some of these companies may have access to substantial capital, innovative technologies or have the ability to provide services at a relatively low cost. To the extent these companies can improve transportation efficiency, alter driving patterns or attitudes toward vehicle rental, offer more competitive prices, undertake more aggressive marketing campaigns, price their competing services below market or otherwise disrupt the mobility industry, we risk heightened pricing competition and/or loss of rental volume, which could adversely impact our business and results of operations.

The risk of competition on the basis of pricing in the truck rental industry can be even more impactful than in the car rental industry as it can be more difficult to reduce the size of our truck rental fleet in response to significantly reduced demand.

We face risks related to fleet costs and availability.

Fleet costs typically represent our single largest expense and can vary from year to year based on the prices that we are able to purchase and dispose of our vehicles. We purchase program vehicles, which are guaranteed a rate of depreciation through agreements with auto manufacturers, and non-program, or risk vehicles. In 2023, on average approximately 90% of our rental fleet was comprised of risk vehicles.

The costs of our risk vehicles may be adversely impacted by the relative strength of the used car market, particularly the market for one- to two-year old used vehicles, or potentially by the insolvency or bankruptcy of an auto manufacturer from whom we purchase vehicles. We currently sell risk vehicles through various sales channels in the used vehicle marketplace, including traditional auctions, and alternative disposition channels, including online auctions, direct-to-dealer sales and directly to consumers through either retail lots or online. These channels may not produce stable vehicle prices in the future, as the market for used vehicles is subject to changes in demand for such vehicles, consumer interests, inventory levels, new car pricing, interest rates, fuel costs, tariffs and general economic conditions, and recent reports have suggested that prices in the used vehicle market may decrease in 2024. A reduction in residual values for risk vehicles in our rental fleet could cause us to
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sustain a substantial loss on the sale of such vehicles or require us to depreciate those vehicles at a more accelerated rate than previously anticipated while we own them.

If the market value of the vehicles in our fleet is reduced or our ability to sell vehicles in the used vehicle marketplace were to become severely limited, we may have difficulty meeting collateral requirements under our asset-backed financing facilities, which could lead to decreased capacity in such facilities and effectively increase our fleet costs or adversely impact our profitability. In addition, if we are unable to meet our collateral requirements under such facilities, the outstanding principal amount due may be required to be repaid earlier than anticipated. If that were to occur, the holders of our asset-backed debt may have the ability to exercise their right to instruct the trustee to direct the return of program vehicles and/or the sale of risk vehicles to generate proceeds sufficient to repay such debt.

Program vehicles enable us to determine our depreciation expense in advance of purchase. Our program vehicles also generally provide us with flexibility to reduce the size of our fleet rapidly. This flexibility is negatively affected as the percentage of program vehicles in our fleet is reduced as has been the trend over the last several years, or if the features of the programs provided by auto manufacturers are less favorable. Our inability to reduce the size of our fleet in response to seasonal demand fluctuations, economic constraints or other changes in demand could have an adverse impact on our fleet costs and results of operations.

Failure by a manufacturer to fulfill its obligations under any program agreement or incentive payment obligation, due to insolvency, bankruptcy or other reasons, could leave us with a material expense if we are unable to dispose of program vehicles at prices estimated at the time of purchase or with a substantial unpaid claim against the manufacturer, particularly with respect to program vehicles that were either (i) resold for an amount less than the amount guaranteed under the applicable program; or (ii) returned to the manufacturer, but for which we were not paid, and therefore we could incur a substantial loss as a result of such failure to perform.

While we source our fleet purchases from a wide range of auto manufacturers, we are exposed to risk to the extent that any auto manufacturer significantly curtails production. Such production may be curtailed as a result of a wide range of factors, including impacts of a pandemic and supply chain impacts, including shortages of parts, which have impacted certain manufacturers in the past. We are also exposed to risk to the extent that any auto manufacturer increases the cost of vehicles, including as a result of inflation, labor shortages or disruptions, or supply chain disruptions, or declines to sell vehicles to us on terms or at prices consistent with past practice. Should any of these risks occur, we may be unable to obtain a sufficient number of vehicles to operate our business without significantly increasing our fleet costs or reducing our volumes.

We face risks related to safety recalls affecting our vehicles.

Our vehicles may be subject to safety recalls by their manufacturers, which could have an adverse impact on our business when we remove recalled vehicles from our rentable fleet. We cannot control nor predict the number of vehicles that will be subject to manufacturer recalls in the future. Recalls often require us to retrieve vehicles from customers and/or hold vehicles until we can arrange for the repairs described in the recalls to be completed. As such, recalls can increase our costs, negatively impact our revenues and/or reduce our fleet utilization. If a large number of vehicles were to be the subject of one or more recalls, or if needed replacement parts were not in adequate supply, we may be unable to utilize recalled vehicles for a significant period of time. We may also be subject to material liability claims or regulatory action related to vehicles subject to a safety recall. Depending on the nature and severity of the recall, it could create customer service problems, reduce the residual value of the vehicles involved, harm our reputation and/or have an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

Weakness or fluctuations in travel demand or general economic conditions, or a significant increase in fuel costs, can adversely impact our business.

Demand for vehicle rentals is generally subject to and impacted by international, national and local economic conditions and travel demand, which can be impacted by many factors, including inflation. When travel demand or economic conditions in the United States, Europe and/or worldwide weaken, our financial condition and results of operations are often adversely impacted.

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Any significant airline capacity reductions, airfare or related fee increases, reduced flight schedules, or any events that disrupt or reduce business or leisure air travel or weaken travel demand and tourism, such as work stoppages, military conflicts, terrorist incidents, natural disasters, disease epidemics, or the response of governments to any such events, could have an adverse impact on our results of operations. For example, events of a global nature such as the COVID-19 pandemic have had, and may in the future have, material impacts on the Company. In addition, any significant increases in fuel prices, a severe protracted disruption in fuel supplies or rationing of fuel, or severe inflation that disrupts consumers’ discretionary spending patterns could discourage our customers from renting vehicles or reduce or disrupt air travel, which could also adversely impact our results of operations.

Our truck rental business can be impacted by the housing market. If conditions in the housing market were to weaken, we may see a reduction in truck rental transactions, which could have an adverse impact on our business. Our truck rental business can also be impacted by changes in the light commercial business sector. If the light commercial business develops their own package delivery service with a fleet of trucks and vans to use for their business, or other large competitors enter the package delivery service industry, in particular around the holiday season, we may see a reduction in truck rental transactions, which could have an adverse impact on our business.

We face risks related to political, economic and commercial instability or uncertainty in the countries in which we operate.

Our global operations expose us to risks related to international, national and local economic and political conditions and instability. Operating our business in a number of different regions and countries exposes us to a number of other risks, including:

multiple and potentially conflicting laws, regulations, trade policies and agreements, and varying tax regimes that are subject to change;

the imposition of currency restrictions, restrictions on repatriation of earnings or other restraints, as well as difficulties in obtaining financing in foreign countries for local operations;

potential changes to import-export laws, trade treaties or tariffs in the countries where we purchase vehicles;

international trade disruptions or disputes;

local ownership or investment requirements, or compliance with local laws, regulations or business practices;

uncertainty and changes to political and regulatory regimes as a result of changing social, political, regulatory and economic environments in the United States and internationally;

national and international conflict, including terrorist acts; and

political and economic instability or civil unrest that may severely disrupt economic activity in affected countries.

Exposure to these risks may adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations. Our licensees’ vehicle rental operations may also be impacted by these risks, which in turn could impact the amount of royalty payments they make to us.

The ongoing military conflicts in the Middle East and Eastern Europe are causing uncertainty that may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The world economy and markets are experiencing volatility and disruption from the ongoing military conflicts in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, the length and impact of which are highly unpredictable. These conflicts have led to, and could in the future lead to, significant volatility in our costs, including fuel and fleet costs, including as a result of sanctions or any embargoes on oil sales imposed on or by the Russian government; impacts to fleet availability; and impacts on demand for travel as a result of weakness in economic conditions, increased inflation
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or increases in the cost of fuel as well as other factors. In addition, as a result of the conflict in Eastern Europe, governmental and non-governmental entities have issued alerts noting the potential for increased cyber-attacks. Such risks and disruptions could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

RISKS RELATED TO THE NATURE OF OUR BUSINESS

Damage to our reputation or brands may negatively impact our business.

Our reputation and global brands are integral to the success of our business. Maintenance of our Company’s reputation and brands depends on many factors, including the quality of our products and services and the trust we maintain with our customers. Negative claims or publicity regarding our Company or our operations, offerings, practices, among many other things, may damage our brands or reputation, even if such claims are untrue. Damage to our reputation or brands could adversely impact our revenue and profitability.

We face risks related to third-party distribution channels that we rely upon.

We rely upon third-party distribution channels to generate a significant portion of our vehicle rental reservations, including:

traditional and online travel agencies, airlines and hotel companies, marketing partners such as credit card companies and membership organizations and other entities that help us attract customers; and

global distribution systems (“GDS”) that connect travel agents, travel service providers and corporations to our reservation systems.

Changes in our pricing agreements, commission schedules or arrangements with third-party distribution channels, the termination of any of our relationships or a reduction in the transaction volume of such channels, or a GDS’s inability to process and communicate reservations to us could have an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

We face risks related to our property leases and vehicle rental concessions.

We have property leases or vehicle rental concessions at locations throughout the world, including at most airports where we operate and at train stations throughout Europe, where vehicle rental companies are frequently required to bid periodically for space at these locations. If we were to lose a property lease or vehicle rental concession, particularly at an airport or a train station in a major metropolitan area, there can be no assurance that we would be able to find a suitable replacement location on reasonable terms, which could adversely impact our business. Most leases and airport concessions have fixed obligations that can be required even if our volume drops significantly. While we have been successful at partially mitigating some of these requirements in the past, including when enplanements have decreased significantly, there is no guarantee that we will be able to do so in the future, and if we are not successful our costs as a percentage of revenue could increase.

We face risks related to the seasonality of our business.

In our business, the third quarter of the year has historically been our most profitable quarter, as measured by net income and Adjusted EBITDA, due primarily to the increased level of summer leisure travel. We vary our fleet size over the course of the year to help manage seasonal variations in demand, as well as localized changes in demand that we may encounter in the various regions in which we operate. Any circumstance or occurrence that disrupts rental activity during the third quarter, especially in North America and Europe, could have a disproportionately adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

We face risks related to acquisitions, including the acquisition of existing licensees or investments in or partnerships with other related businesses.

We may engage in strategic transactions, including the acquisition of, or investment in, existing licensees and/or other businesses, partnerships or joint ventures. The risks involved in engaging in these types of transactions include the possible failure to successfully integrate the operations of acquired businesses, or to realize expected benefits within the anticipated time frame, or at all, such as cost savings, synergies, sales and growth
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opportunities. In addition, the integration of an acquired business or oversight of a partnership or joint venture may result in material unanticipated challenges, expenses, liabilities or competitive responses, including:

inconsistencies between our standards, procedures and policies and those of an acquired business, partnership and/or joint venture;

costs or inefficiencies associated with the integration of our operational and administrative systems;

the increased scope and complexity of our operations could require significant attention from management and could impose constraints on our operations or other projects;

unforeseen expenses, delays or conditions, including required regulatory or other third-party approvals or consents, or provisions in contracts with third parties that could limit our flexibility to take certain actions;

an inability to retain the customers, employees, suppliers and/or marketing partners of an acquired business, partnership or joint venture or generate new customers or revenue opportunities through a strategic partnership;

the costs of compliance with local laws and regulations and the implementation of compliance processes, as well as the assumption of unexpected liabilities, litigation, penalties or other enforcement actions;

exposure to undetected malware and viruses embedded in the acquired IT systems of the acquired entity; and

higher than expected costs arising due to unforeseen changes in tax, trade, environmental, labor, safety, payroll or pension policies.

Any one of these factors could result in delays, increased costs or decreases in the amount of expected revenues related to or derived from a strategic transaction and could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

We face risks related to vehicle electrification.

Vehicle electrification refers to a range of technologies that uses electricity to propel a vehicle and includes hybrid, plug-in, extended range and battery electric vehicles, as well as autonomous vehicles. We believe that the vehicle industry will continue to experience significant change in the coming years, in particular as it relates to vehicle electrification. Worldwide demand for electric and hybrid vehicles continues to increase, and manufacturers continue to invest more time and cost into producing these types of vehicles in an effort to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as mandated by various governmental standards and regulations. If we are not adequately prepared to meet consumer demand for electric, hybrid and autonomous vehicles as such demand develops, including if we are unable to attain an optimal and consistently reliable charging infrastructure and systems, which will require substantial capital investment, or if consumer demand for electric, hybrid and autonomous vehicles fails to meet our expectations, including due to slower or inadequate investments in charging infrastructure by third parties, our financial condition or results of operations could be adversely impacted.

We face risks related to liability and insurance.

Our global operations expose us to several forms of liability, including claims for bodily injury, death and property damage related to the use of our vehicles, or for having our customers on our premises, as well as workers’ compensation and other claims. We may become exposed to uninsured liability at levels in excess of our historical levels, which may exceed the level of our reserves and could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, insurance with unaffiliated insurers may not continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms or at all. Should we be subject to an adverse ruling, or experience other significant liability for which we did not plan and were not adequately insured, our results of operations, financial position or cash flows could be negatively impacted.

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We reinsure certain insurance exposures as well as offer optional insurance coverages through unaffiliated third-party insurers that then reinsure all or a portion of their risks through our insurance company subsidiaries, which subjects us to regulation under various insurance laws and statutes. Any changes in regulations that alter or impede our reinsurance obligations or insurance subsidiary operations, or any negative regulatory or other legal action against us with respect to our reinsurance, could adversely impact the economic benefits that we rely upon to support our reinsurance efforts, which in turn would adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

Optional insurance products that we offer to renters in the United States, including, but not limited to, supplemental or additional liability insurance, personal accident insurance and personal effects protection, are regulated under state laws. Our vehicle rental operations outside the United States must also comply with certain local laws and regulations regarding the sale of personal accident and effects insurance by intermediaries. Any changes in law that affect our operating requirements with respect to our sale of optional insurance products could increase our costs of compliance or make it uneconomical to offer such products, which would lead to a reduction in revenue and profitability. Should more of our customers decline to purchase optional liability insurance products as a result of any changes in these laws, or otherwise, our financial condition or results of operations could be adversely impacted.

We offer loss damage waivers to our customers as an option for them to reduce their financial responsibility that may be incurred as a result of loss or damage to the rental vehicle. Certain states in the United States have enacted legislation that mandates disclosure to each customer and some states have statutes that establish or cap the daily rate that can be charged for loss damage waivers. Should new laws or regulations arise that place new limits on our ability to offer loss damage waivers to our customers, our financial condition or results of operations could be adversely impacted.

Additionally, current United States. federal law pre-empts state laws that impute tort liability based solely on ownership of a vehicle involved in an accident. If such federal law were to change, our insurance liability exposure could materially increase.

We may be unable to collect amounts that we believe are owed to us by customers, insurers and other third parties related to vehicle damage claims or liabilities. The inability to collect such amounts in a timely manner or to the extent that we expect could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

We face risks related to fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

Our operations generate revenue and incur operating costs in a variety of currencies. The financial position and results of operations of many of our foreign subsidiaries are reported in the relevant local currency and then translated to United States dollars at the applicable currency exchange rate for inclusion in our Consolidated Financial Statements. Changes in exchange rates among these currencies and the U.S. dollar have affected, and will continue to affect, among other things, the recorded levels of our assets and liabilities in our Consolidated Financial Statements. While we take steps to manage our currency exposure, such as currency hedging, we may not be able to effectively limit our exposure to intermediate- or long-term movements in currency exchange rates, which could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

We face risks related to our derivative instruments.

We typically utilize derivative instruments to manage fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, interest rates and fuel prices. The derivative instruments we use to manage our risk are usually in the form of interest rate swaps and caps and foreign exchange and commodity contracts. Periodically, we are required to determine the change in fair value, called the “mark-to-market,” of some of these derivative instruments, which could expose us to substantial mark-to-market losses or gains if such rates or prices fluctuate materially from the time we entered into the derivatives. Accordingly, volatility in rates or prices may adversely impact our financial position or results of operations and could impact the cost and effectiveness of our derivative instruments in managing our risks.

Earnings for future periods may be impacted by impairment charges for goodwill and intangible assets.

We carry a significant amount of goodwill and identifiable intangible assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Goodwill is the excess of purchase price over the fair value of the net assets of acquired businesses. We assess
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goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment each year, or more frequently if circumstances suggest an impairment may have occurred. We have determined in the past and may again determine in the future that a significant impairment has occurred in the value of our goodwill. Additionally, we have a significant amount of identifiable intangible assets and fixed assets that could also be subject to impairment. If we determine that a significant impairment has occurred in the value of our unamortized intangible assets or fixed assets, we could be required to write off a portion of our assets, which could adversely affect our consolidated financial condition or our reported results of operations.

RISKS RELATED TO LEGAL, REGULATORY AND ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL, AND GOVERNANCE (“ESG”) RELATED MATTERS

Costs associated with lawsuits, investigations or increases in legal reserves that we establish based on our assessment of contingent liabilities may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our global operations expose us to various claims, lawsuits and other legal proceedings that arise in and outside of the ordinary course of our business in the countries in which we operate. We may be subject to complaints and/or litigation involving our customers, licensees, employees, independent operators and others with whom we conduct business, including claims for bodily injury, death and property damage related to use of our vehicles or our locations, or claims based on allegations of discrimination, misclassification as exempt, wage and hour pay disputes or allegations related to our business practices, and various other claims. We could be subject to substantial costs and/or adverse outcomes from such claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

At some of our locations, we outsource to third-party independent contractors who operate the business as a separate entity and we pay these independent contractors a commission for operating their business under our brands. There is a growing trend in the United States aimed at the gig economy to define independent contractors as employees. As such, we are subject to legislative and or judicial determination that any such changes are applicable to these independent contractors. Such determinations may require us to change the business operations and make such independent contractor locations employee operated. This could potentially expose us to additional costs and material liability under federal and state labor and employment and tax laws.

From time to time, our Company may be reviewed or investigated by government regulators, which could lead to tax assessments, enforcement actions, fines and penalties or the assertion of private litigation claims. It is not possible to predict with certainty the outcome of claims, investigations and lawsuits, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, while we maintain insurance coverage with respect to exposure for certain types of legal claims, we may not be able to obtain such insurance on acceptable terms in the future, if at all, and any such insurance may not provide adequate coverage against any such claims.

We face risks related to laws and regulations that could impact our global operations.

We are subject to multiple, and sometimes conflicting, laws and regulations in the countries in which we operate that relate to, among others, consumer protection, competition and antitrust, customer privacy and data protection, securities and public disclosure, automotive retail sales, franchising, corruption and anti-bribery, environmental matters, taxes, automobile-related liability, labor and employment matters, cost and fee recovery, currency-exchange and other various banking and financial industry regulations, health and safety, insurance rates and products, claims management, protection of our trademarks and other intellectual property and other trade-related laws and regulations. We cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of future regulatory requirements to which our global operations may be subject or the manner in which existing or future laws may be administered or interpreted. Any alleged or actual violations of any law or regulation, change in law, regulation, trade treaties or tariffs, or changes in the interpretation of existing laws or regulations may subject us to government scrutiny, investigation and civil and criminal penalties, limit our ability to provide services in any of the countries in which we operate and could result in a material adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial position or results of operations.

In certain countries where we have Company-operated locations, we may recover certain costs from consumers, including costs associated with the title and registration of our vehicles, or concession costs imposed by an airport authority or the owner and/or operator of the premises from which our vehicles are rented. We may in the future be subject to potential laws or regulations that could negatively impact our ability to separately state, charge and recover such costs, which could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.
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We are seeking Advanced Pricing Agreements with certain tax authorities to obtain certainty regarding our transfer pricing policy. While this effort is ongoing, the process of negotiating and ultimately entering into these agreements has been lengthy and may take several more years. The ultimate results of our negotiations of these agreements with tax authorities, the expiration of such agreements, or changes in circumstances or in the interpretation of such agreements could increase our tax costs in these jurisdictions, including through the assessment of significant interest charges and/or penalties if non-compliance is adjudicated. To the extent we do not have an existing Advance Pricing Agreement or other agreement, governmental authorities could challenge our transfer pricing policy in the future and, if challenged, we may not prevail, which could increase our tax costs or reduce savings related to our transfer pricing policy.

We face risks related to environmental laws and regulations.

We are subject to a wide variety of environmental laws and regulations in connection with our operations, including, among other things, with respect to the ownership or use of tanks for the storage of petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel and motor and waste oils; the treatment or discharge of waste waters; and the generation, storage, transportation and off-site treatment or disposal of solid or liquid wastes. We maintain liability insurance covering storage tanks at our locations. In the United States, we administer an environmental compliance program designed to ensure that these tanks are properly registered in the jurisdiction in which they are located and are in compliance with applicable technical and operational requirements. The tank systems located at each of our locations may not at all times remain free from undetected leaks, and the use of these tanks has resulted in, and from time to time in the future may result in, spills, which may be significant and may require remediation and expose us to material uninsured liability or liabilities in excess of insurance.

We may also be subject to requirements related to the remediation of substances that have been released into the environment at properties owned or operated by us or at properties to which we send substances for treatment or disposal. Such remediation requirements may be imposed without regard to fault and liability for environmental remediation can be substantial. These remediation requirements and other environmental regulations differ depending on the country where the property is located. We have made, and will continue to make, expenditures to comply with environmental laws and regulations, including, among others, expenditures for the remediation of contamination at our owned and leased properties, as well as contamination at other locations at which our wastes have reportedly been identified. Our compliance with existing or future environmental laws and regulations may, however, require material expenditures by us or otherwise have an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

Governments are likely to continue to pursue measures related to climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, including vehicle travel restrictions. Should rules establishing limitations on greenhouse gas or other emissions or rules imposing fees on entities deemed to be responsible for greenhouse gas emissions, or rules establishing bans on diesel or fuel vehicles from entering certain locations become effective in the countries in which we operate, demand for our services could be affected, our fleet and/or other costs could increase, and our business could be adversely impacted.

We face risks related to ESG matters.

Increasing attention to climate change, increasing societal expectations on companies to address climate change, the increase in proposed and adopted ESG regulations and laws, both domestically (including in California) and globally (especially in the European continent) and potential consumer and customer use of substitutes to our products may result in increased costs, reduced demand for our products, reduced profits, increased investigations and litigation, reputational harm and negative impacts on our stock price and access to capital markets. We have developed certain initiatives, goals and practices relating to ESG matters. We may not be successful in implementing these initiatives, goals and practices, including due to factors beyond our control, and even if successful, they may not achieve our desired or expected outcomes. If our ESG initiatives, goals, and practices do not meet our expectations, those of our investors or other stakeholders, or requirements of local rules and regulations, each of which continue to evolve, we may incur additional costs, and our brand, reputation and our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely impacted.

In addition, organizations that provide information to investors on corporate governance and related matters have developed ratings processes for evaluating companies on their approach to ESG matters. Such ratings are used by some investors to inform their investment and voting decisions. Unfavorable ESG ratings and investment
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community divestment initiatives may lead to negative publicity or investor sentiment toward us and to the diversion of investment to other industries, which could have a negative impact on our stock price and our access to and costs of capital.

We face risks related to franchising or licensing laws and regulations.

We license to third parties the right to operate locations using our brands in exchange for royalty payments. Our licensing activities are subject to various laws and regulations in the countries in which we operate. In particular, laws in the United States require that we provide extensive disclosure to prospective licensees in connection with licensing offers and sales, as well as comply with franchise relationship laws that could limit our ability to, among other things, terminate license agreements or withhold consent to the renewal or transfer of these agreements. We are also subject to certain regulations affecting our license arrangements in Europe and other international locations. Should our operations become subject to new laws or regulations that negatively impact our ability to engage in licensing activities, our financial condition or results of operations could be adversely impacted.

We face risks related to the actions of, or failures to act by, our licensees, dealers, independent operators or third-party vendors.

Our vehicle rental licensee and dealer locations are independently owned and operated. We also operate many of our Company-owned locations through agreements with independent operators, which are third-party independent contractors who receive commissions to operate such locations. We also enter into service contracts with various third-party vendors that provide services for us or in support of our business. Under our agreements with our licensees, dealers, independent operators and third-party vendors (collectively referred to as “third-party operators”), the third-party operators retain control over the employment and management of all personnel at their locations or in support of the services that they provide our Company. These agreements also generally require that third-party operators comply with all laws and regulations applicable to their businesses, including relevant internal policies and standards. Regulators, courts or others may seek to hold us responsible for the actions of, or failures to act by, third-party operators or their employees based on theories of vicarious liability, negligence, joint operations or joint employer liability. Although we actively monitor the operations of these third-party operators, and under certain circumstances have the ability to terminate their agreements for failure to adhere to contracted operational standards, we are unlikely to detect all misconduct or noncompliance by a third-party operator or its employees. It is our policy to vigorously seek to be dismissed from any claims involving third-party operators and to pursue indemnity for any adverse outcomes that affect the Company. Failure of third-party operators to comply with laws and regulations or our operational standards, or our inability to be dismissed from claims against our third-party operators, may expose us to liability, damages and negative publicity that may damage our brand and reputation and adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

We face risks associated with changes in tax laws.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”) eliminated the use of like-kind exchange for personal property and allowed for full expensing of qualified property purchases through 2022. From 2004 until its elimination, we utilized like-kind exchange to replace vehicles in a manner that allowed for a material deferral of United States (U.S.) federal and state income taxes. The effect of the repeal of the like-kind exchange treatment for vehicle sales has been largely offset through 2022 by the availability of full expensing for certain business assets (including our vehicles) in the year placed in service. During 2023, the full expensing provision has started to phase-out ratably over five years. While proposed legislation is presently under consideration in Congress to postpone this phase-out, no assurance can be given that the phase-out will be delayed. Certain U.S. states have modified their tax statutes as a result of the Tax Act, and such state legislation does not allow the use of full expensing benefits for state tax purposes, which negatively impacts our tax liability in such states. Other U.S. states continue to modify their tax statutes related to full expensing. Therefore, we cannot offer assurance that the benefits from the expected tax deductions will continue.

The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the “IRA”) includes a 15% corporate alternative minimum tax on certain large corporations and a 1% excise tax on certain corporate stock repurchases. The impact on the Company of these provisions, which became effective on January 1, 2023, will depend on several factors, including recently released and forthcoming interpretive regulatory guidance. The Company continues to review and assess the provisions of the IRA, and its potential impact on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

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There is also a high level of uncertainty in today’s tax environment stemming from both global initiatives put forth by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (the “OECD”), and unilateral measures being implemented by various countries. As an example, the OECD has put forth two proposals—Pillar One and Pillar Two—that revise the existing profit allocation and nexus rules (profit allocation based on location of sales versus physical presence) and ensure a minimal level of taxation, respectively. During 2023, the OECD issued administrative guidance which provides for transition and safe harbor rules for the global minimum tax. Further, many countries have proposed or have begun to implement changes to existing tax laws in response to the OECD’s proposals. The Company continues to closely monitor any such developments and guidance issued to determine any impact on our effective tax rate, cash tax obligations and operations.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND INDEBTEDNESS

We face risks related to our current and future debt obligations, including risks related to conditions in the credit and asset-backed securities markets.

Our ability to satisfy and manage our debt obligations depends on our ability to generate cash flow and on overall financial market conditions. To some extent, this is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our outstanding debt obligations require us to dedicate a significant portion of our cash flows to pay interest and principal on our debt, which reduces funds available to us for other purposes. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to permit us to service our debt obligations and meet our other cash needs, which may force us to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell or curtail assets or operations, seek additional capital or seek to restructure or refinance our indebtedness. If we must sell or curtail our assets or operations, it may negatively affect our ability to generate revenue. Certain of our debt obligations contain restrictive covenants and provisions that may limit our ability to, among other things, incur additional debt; provide guarantees; pay dividends or distributions, redeem or repurchase capital stock; prepay, redeem or repurchase debt; create or incur liens; make distributions from our subsidiaries; sell assets and capital stock of our subsidiaries; and consolidate or merge with or into, or sell substantially all of our assets to, another person. These covenants and provisions also may limit our ability to respond to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions, as well as changes in government regulation and changes to our business.

Our failure to comply with these restrictive covenants and provisions, if not waived, would cause a default under the applicable debt agreement and could result in a cross-default under several of our other debt obligations, including our United States and European asset-backed debt facilities. If such a default were to occur, we could be required to repay or accelerate debt payments to the lenders or holders of our debt, and there can be no assurance that we would be able to refinance or obtain a replacement for such financing programs.

We finance our vehicle fleet purchases and operations through the use of asset-backed securities in the United States, Canada, Australia and Europe and other debt financing structures available through the credit markets. If the asset-backed financing and/or credit markets were to be disrupted for any reason, we may be unable to obtain refinancing for our operations or vehicle fleet purchases at current levels, or at all, when our respective asset-backed financings or debt financings mature. Likewise, any disruption of the asset-backed financing or credit markets could also increase our borrowing costs, as we seek to refinance existing debt or increase our indebtedness. In addition, we could be subject to increased collateral requirements to the extent that we request any amendment or renewal of any of our existing asset-backed or debt financings.

We face risks related to increases in interest rates.

A portion of our borrowings, primarily our vehicle-backed borrowings, bears interest at variable rates that expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates continue to increase, whether due to continued increases in market interest rates or one or more increases in our own cost of borrowing, our debt service obligations for our variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount of borrowings remain the same, and our results of operations could be adversely affected. As of December 31, 2023, our total outstanding debt of approximately $23.9 billion included unhedged interest rate sensitive debt of approximately $7.6 billion. During our seasonal borrowing peak in 2023, outstanding unhedged interest rate sensitive debt totaled approximately $7.6 billion.

Virtually all of our debt under vehicle programs and certain of our corporate indebtedness matures within the next five years. If we are unable to refinance maturing indebtedness at interest rates that are equivalent to or lower
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than the interest rates on our maturing debt, our results of operations or our financial condition may be adversely affected.

We face certain risks related to our share repurchase program.

Our Board of Directors previously authorized the repurchase of up to $8.1 billion of our common stock under a plan originally approved in 2013 and subsequently expanded most recently in February 2023 (the “Share Repurchase Program”). As of December 31, 2023, approximately $802 million remains available under the Share Repurchase Program. If we purchase additional shares of our common stock under the Share Repurchase Program, the percentage of our outstanding common stock owned by SRS Investment Management, LLC and its affiliates (“SRS”) may increase, even without further action by SRS. Under the terms of the Fourth Amended and Restated Cooperation Agreement between the Company and SRS, SRS has committed, with respect to shares of common stock SRS holds in excess of 35% of the Company’s outstanding common stock, to exercise its voting rights in the same proportion in which other shares of common stock are voted. Notwithstanding this commitment, the ownership by SRS of more than 50% of the Company’s outstanding common stock could trigger, or increase the likelihood that we trigger, certain change in control provisions in the indentures governing our senior notes. The Company must make a 101% change of control offer for the senior notes if, within 60 days following a change of control, the ratings on the notes are downgraded by one or more gradations or withdrawn and the applicable rating agency announces that such downgrade or withdrawal is attributable to the change of control.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MATTERS, DATA SECURITY AND PRIVACY

We face risks related to our protection of our intellectual property.

We have registered certain marks and designs as trademarks in the United States and in certain other countries. At times, competitors may adopt service names similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. In addition, we have been subject to, and from time to time in the future may be subject to, trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other registered trademarks or trademarks that incorporate variations of our registered trademarks. From time to time, we have acquired or attempted to acquire Internet domain names held by others when such names have caused consumer confusion or had the potential to cause consumer confusion. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights related to trademarks, trade secrets, domain names, copyrights or other intellectual property may be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

We face risks related to our reliance on communications networks and centralized information systems.

We rely heavily on the satisfactory performance and availability of our information systems, including our reservation systems, websites and network infrastructure to attract and retain customers, accept reservations, process rental and sales transactions, manage our fleet of vehicles, account for our activities and otherwise conduct our business. We rely on third-party communications service and system providers for technology services. We have been subjected to, and from time to time in the future may be subject to, a failure or interruption that results in the unavailability of certain of our information systems. Such a failure or interruption, or a major disruption, could cause a loss of reservations, interfere with our fleet management, slow rental and sales processes, create negative publicity that damages our reputation or otherwise adversely impacts our ability to manage our business effectively. We may experience system interruptions or disruptions for a variety of reasons, including from network failures, power outages, cyber-attacks, employee errors, software errors, an unusually high volume of visitors attempting to access our systems, or other events such as fire, explosions, earthquakes, storms, floods, epidemics, strikes, acts of war, civil unrest or terrorist acts. Because we are dependent in part on independent third parties for the implementation and maintenance of certain aspects of our systems and because some of the causes of system interruptions may be outside of our control, we may not be able to remedy such interruptions in a timely manner, or at all. Our systems’ business continuity plans and insurance programs seek to mitigate such risks but they cannot fully eliminate the risks.

We face risks related to cybersecurity breaches of our systems and information technology.

Threats to network and data security are becoming increasingly diverse and sophisticated. As cybersecurity threats become more frequent, intense and sophisticated, costs of proactive defense measures may increase.
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Third parties may have the technology or expertise to breach the security of our customer transaction data and our security measures may not prevent or timely detect physical security or cybersecurity breaches, which could result in substantial harm to our business, our reputation or our results of operations. We rely on encryption and/or authentication technology licensed from and, at times, administered by independent third parties to secure transmission of confidential information, including credit card numbers and other customer personal information. Our outsourcing agreements with these third-party service providers, including third-party hosted cloud environments, generally require that they have adequate security systems in place to protect our customer transaction data. Despite the implementation of cybersecurity measures (including access controls, data encryption, vulnerability assessments, continuous monitoring, and maintenance of backup and protective systems), our information technology systems or those used by our third-party service providers may still be vulnerable to a breach. Additionally, if a third-party service provider on which we rely experiences a breach, we may not learn of such breach in a timely manner, or at all, which may inhibit our ability to mitigate its impacts, and exacerbate the risks described in this paragraph.

In addition, anyone who is able to circumvent our security measures, or those of our third-party service providers, could misappropriate proprietary information or cause interruptions in our operations. Risks of cybersecurity incidents caused by malicious third parties using sophisticated, targeted methods to circumvent firewalls, encryption, and other security defenses, could include hacking, viruses, malicious software, ransomware, phishing attacks, denial of service attacks and other attempts to capture, disrupt or gain unauthorized access to data are rapidly evolving and could lead to disruptions in our reservation system or other data systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information or corruption of data. The techniques used by third parties change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time. Any successful efforts by individuals to infiltrate, break into, disrupt, damage or otherwise steal from the Company’s, its licensees’ or its third-party service providers’ security or information systems could damage our reputation and expose us to increased cybersecurity protection costs, litigation or other liability that could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations. A cybersecurity breach resulting in the unauthorized use or disclosure of certain personal information could put individuals at risk of identity theft and financial or other harm and result in costs to the Company in investigation, remediation, legal defense and in liability to parties who are financially harmed. Failure to appropriately address these issues could also give rise to potentially material legal risks and liabilities.

We are subject to privacy, data protection, data security and other regulations, as well as private industry standards, which could negatively impact our global operations and cause us to incur additional incremental expense or reputational harm that impacts our future operating results.

Our business requires the secure processing and storage of personal information relating to our customers, employees, business partners and others. Current privacy and data protection laws, particularly the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), the United Kingdom Data Protection Act (“UK DPA”), the California Consumer Privacy Act including modifications by the California Privacy Rights Act (collectively, the “CCPA”), the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (“VCDPA”), and other regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate impose obligations and restrictions regarding the types of information that we may collect, process, sell and retain about our customers, employees and other individuals with whom we deal or propose to deal, some of which may be non-public personal data. A patchwork of new and proposed privacy and data protection legislation and regulation continues to evolve across the jurisdictions in which we operate. These laws and regulations, each wide-ranging in scope, provide individuals located in those jurisdictions with greater control over their personal data and impose various requirements on our business relating to the collection and processing of personal data. These laws also impose significant forfeitures and penalties for noncompliance and afford private rights of action to individuals under certain circumstances. The Company has adopted policies and procedures in compliance with these laws, which may need to be updated as new laws are passed or as additional guidance is made available from regulatory authorities or published enforcement decisions. Data protection laws in the countries where we operate are developing at a rapid pace and may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and impose inconsistent or conflicting requirements. Complying with varying jurisdictional privacy and data protection requirements could increase our operating costs, divert management attention or require additional changes to our business practices. Should we be found to not be in compliance with the GDPR, UK DPA, CCPA, VCDPA or similar privacy and data protection laws, we could be subject to substantial monetary penalties, government consent decrees, regulatory enforcement actions, and other sanctions that could negatively impact our operating results or harm our reputation.

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The centralized nature of our information systems combined with the expansive nature of our global business requires the routine flow of information regarding employees, customers and potential customers, and suppliers across national borders, particularly in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe. Although new and updated personal data transfer mechanisms, such as the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses, have been adopted by regulators following the invalidation of previously available transfer mechanisms in 2020 by the Court of Justice of the European Union, these mechanisms remain subject to legal uncertainty and face ongoing scrutiny from EU supervisory authorities. This continued uncertainty may affect our ability to process and transfer personal data, which could impact our ability to serve our customers and efficiently manage our employees and operations. Moreover, our failure to maintain the security of the data we hold, whether as a result of our own error or the actions of others, could harm our reputation or give rise to legal liabilities that adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations. Privacy and data protection laws and regulations restrict the ways that we process our transaction information, and the payment card industry imposes strict customer credit card data security standards to ensure that our customers’ credit card information is protected. Failure to meet these data privacy and security standards could result in substantial increased fees to credit card companies, other liabilities and/or loss of the right to collect credit card payments, which could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

GENERAL RISK FACTORS

We face risks related to the market price of our common stock.

We cannot predict the prices at which our common stock will trade. The market price of our common stock has experienced substantial volatility in the past and may fluctuate widely in the future, depending on many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including, but not limited to, the factors described in this “Risk Factors” section and the section titled “Forward-Looking Statements.” If any of these factors materialize, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to litigation, including class action lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend, distract management, and harm our reputation.

Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and by-laws and Delaware law could prevent or delay a potential acquisition of control of our Company, which could decrease the trading price of our common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated by-laws and the laws in the State of Delaware contain provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids by making such practices or bids unacceptably expensive to the prospective acquirer and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with our Board of Directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. Delaware law also imposes restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between us and any holder of 15% or more of our outstanding common stock.

We believe these provisions protect our stockholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by effectively requiring those who seek to obtain control of the Company to negotiate with our Board of Directors and by providing our Board with more time to assess any such potential acquisition of control. However, these provisions could apply even if such a potential acquisition of control of the Company may be considered beneficial by some stockholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition of control that our Board of Directors determines is not in the best interests of our Company and our stockholders.

 ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
We maintain processes for assessing, identifying and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats.
We regularly use both outsourced and in-house information security expertise to employ a variety of administrative, technical, and physical data safeguards designed to both deter and mitigate cybersecurity risks, including cyber incident response procedures, endpoint threat detection and response solutions, employee
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training, third-party risk reviews, penetration testing, technical control reviews, vulnerability assessments, and enterprise-wide risk assessments. These policies and procedures, which are based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology framework, align with international standards under ISO/IEC 27001 and are reviewed annually, including via an annual assessment of relevant IT SOX controls and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard reviews performed both by external Qualified Security Assessors and authorized members of our internal information security team. Our third-party due diligence processes also include procedures for identifying cybersecurity threats associated with third-party service providers. Cybersecurity risks are also identified and evaluated through our enterprise risk management (ERM) processes, which are overseen by the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors. Through our ERM processes, key stakeholders across the business identify, assess, and manage risk, including material cybersecurity risks. These processes enable us to monitor and assess the evolving landscape of cybersecurity risks.
Our information security program is administered under the supervision of our EVP, Chief Digital and Innovation Officer (CDIO) and Vice President (VP) of Platforms, Infrastructure and Cybersecurity, who share responsibility for assessing and managing the Company’s cybersecurity risks. Both our CDIO and VP of Platforms, Infrastructure, and Cybersecurity have over 20 years of related experience, holding technical leadership roles at notable multinational organizations, across diverse industries.
Our CDIO and VP of Platforms, Infrastructure and Cybersecurity also monitor the prevention, detention, mitigation and remediation of cybersecurity incidents through the same processes described above for the identification and management of material cybersecurity risks.
The Audit Committee of our Board of Directors oversees risks associated with information technology and cybersecurity. Cybersecurity risks and incidents identified through these processes are evaluated by our CDIO and VP of Platforms, Infrastructure and Cybersecurity. Our VP of Platforms, Infrastructure and Cybersecurity provides regular updates on a quarterly basis, and more frequently as required, on these matters to the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors. Such reports may include discussions on current control audits, risk assessments, proposed mitigation measures, and other key information technology and cyber initiatives.
Information about our material cybersecurity risks can be found in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our principal executive offices are owned and located at 379 Interpace Parkway, Parsippany, New Jersey 07054. We own a facility in Virginia Beach, Virginia, which serves as a satellite administrative facility for our car and truck rental operations. We also lease office space in Tulsa, Oklahoma and Boston, Massachusetts, pursuant to leases expiring in 2028 and 2031, respectively. These locations primarily provide operational and administrative services or contact center operations for our Americas segment. We also lease office space in Bracknell, England, Barcelona, Spain and Budapest, Hungary, pursuant to leases expiring in 2032, 2026 and 2026, respectively, for corporate offices, contact center activities and other administrative functions, respectively, for our International segment. Other office locations throughout the world are leased for administrative, regional sales and operations activities.

We lease or have vehicle rental concessions for our brands at locations throughout the world. We own approximately 3% of the locations from which we operate and in some cases we sublease to licensees or other third parties. The remaining locations from which we operate our vehicle rental businesses are leased or operated under concession agreements with governmental authorities and private entities. Those leases and concession agreements typically require the payment of minimum rents or minimum concession fees and often also require us to pay or reimburse operating expenses, to pay additional rent, or concession fees above guaranteed minimums based on a percentage of revenues or sales arising at the relevant premises, or to do both. See Note 3 – Leases to our Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding lease commitments.

We believe that our properties are sufficient to meet our present needs and we do not anticipate any difficulty in securing additional space, as needed, on acceptable terms.

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 ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

For information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 15 – Commitments and Contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

 ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.
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PART II
 ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER
MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

MARKET FOR COMMON EQUITY

Our common stock is currently traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “CAR.” At January 31, 2024, the number of stockholders of record was 1,980.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We evaluate our dividend policy on a regular basis and may pay dividends in the future, subject to compliance with the covenants in our senior credit facility, the indentures governing our senior notes and our vehicle financing programs. The declaration and payment of future dividends to holders of our common stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will also depend upon many factors, including our financial condition, earnings, capital requirements of our businesses, covenants associated with certain debt obligations, legal requirements, regulatory constraints, industry practice and other factors that our Board of Directors deems relevant. In December 2023, we declared and paid a $10.00 per share special cash dividend to all holders of our common stock as of December 15, 2023. We did not declare or pay any cash dividends in 2022 or 2021.

ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Total Number of Shares Purchased
(in millions)
Average Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (in millions)Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
($ in millions)
October 20230.66 $171.80 0.66 $945 
November 20230.55 189.29 0.55 841 
December 20230.20 192.48 0.20 802 
1.41 $181.52 1.41 $802 

Our Board of Directors has authorized the repurchase of up to approximately $8.1 billion of our common stock under a plan originally approved in 2013 and subsequently expanded, most recently in February 2023. Under our stock repurchase program, we repurchase shares from time to time in open market transactions and may also repurchase shares in accelerated share repurchases, tender offers, privately negotiated transactions or by other means. Repurchases may also be made under a plan pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The timing and amount of repurchase transactions is determined by management based on our evaluation of market conditions, our share price, legal requirements, restricted payment capacity under our debt instruments and other factors. Our stock repurchase program may be suspended, modified or discontinued without prior notice.

PERFORMANCE GRAPH

Set forth below are a line graph and table comparing the cumulative total stockholder return of our common stock against the cumulative total returns of the S&P MidCap 400 Index and the Dow Jones US Transportation Average Index for the period of five fiscal years commencing December 31, 2018 and ending December 31, 2023. The broad equity market index used by the Company is the S&P MidCap 400 Index, which measures the performance of mid-sized companies, and the published industry index used by the Company is the Dow Jones US Transportation Average Index, which measures the performance of transportation companies. The graph and table depict the result of an investment on December 31, 2018 of $100 in the Company’s common stock, the S&P MidCap 400 Index and the Dow Jones US Transportation Average Index, including investment of dividends.

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https://cdn.kscope.io/e7c1105a0ae1852a14e8dd966a109af6-RDG Return Graph FY23.jpg

As of December 31,
201820192020 2021 2022 2023
Avis Budget Group, Inc.$100.00 $143.42 $165.93 $922.46 $729.23 $829.47 
S&P MidCap 400 Index$100.00 $126.20 $143.44 $178.95 $155.58 $181.15 
Dow Jones US Transportation Average Index$100.00 $120.83 $140.80 $187.56 $154.62 $186.46 


 ITEM 6.RESERVED

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 ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF
OPERATIONS

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with Part I, Item 1, “Business”, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and our Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying Notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K commencing on page F-1. Our actual results of operations may differ materially from those discussed in forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including but not limited to those included in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and other portions of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Unless otherwise noted, all dollar amounts in tables are in millions.

 OVERVIEW
OUR COMPANY
We operate three of the most globally recognized brands in mobility solutions, Avis, Budget and Zipcar together with several other brands well recognized in their respective markets. We are a leading vehicle rental operator in North America, Europe, Australasia and certain other regions we serve, with an average rental fleet of approximately 691,500 vehicles in 2023. We also license the use of our trademarks to licensees in the areas in which we do not operate directly. We and our licensees operate our brands in approximately 180 countries throughout the world.

 RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 2022 is presented below. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to 2021 can be found under Part II, Item 7 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 16, 2023, which is available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and our Investor Relations website at ir.avisbudgetgroup.com.

In 2023, we saw strong volume as normal seasonality returned to our industry. This coupled with revenue per day and inflationary pressures resulted in revenues of approximately $12.0 billion, net income of $1.6 billion and Adjusted EBITDA of $2.5 billion for the year ended December 31, 2023.

We continue to be susceptible to a number of industry-specific and global macroeconomic factors that may cause our actual results of operations to differ from our historical results of operations or current expectations. The factors and trends that we currently believe are or will be most impactful to our results of operations and financial condition include the following: interest rates, inflationary impact on items such as commodity prices and wages, disruption in the supply of new vehicles, used car values, and an economic downturn that may impact travel demand, all of which may be exacerbated by the ongoing military conflicts in the Middle East and Eastern Europe. We continue to monitor the potential favorable or unfavorable impacts of these and other factors on our business, operations, financial condition, and future results of operations. Our strategy continues to primarily focus on customer experience and costs to strengthen our Company, maximize profitability, and deliver stakeholder value.

We measure performance principally using the following key metrics: (i) rental days, which represent the total number of days (or portion thereof) a vehicle was rented, (ii) revenue per day, which represents revenues divided by rental days, (iii) vehicle utilization, which represents rental days divided by available rental days, with available rental days being defined as average rental fleet times the number of days in the period, and (iv) per-unit fleet costs, which represent vehicle depreciation, lease charges and gain or loss on vehicle sales, divided by average rental fleet. Our rental days, revenue per day and vehicle utilization metrics are all calculated based on the actual rental of the vehicle during a 24-hour period. We believe that this methodology provides management with the most relevant metrics in order to effectively manage the performance of the business. Our calculation may not be comparable to the calculation of similarly titled metrics by other companies. We present currency exchange rate effects to provide a method of assessing how our business performed excluding the effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations. Currency exchange rate effects are calculated by translating the current-year results at the prior-period average exchange rate plus any related gains and losses on currency hedges.

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We assess performance and allocate resources based upon the separate financial information of our operating segments. In identifying our reportable segments, we also consider the nature of services provided by our operating segments, the geographical areas in which our segments operate and other relevant factors. Management evaluates the operating results of each of our reportable segments based upon revenues and Adjusted EBITDA, which we define as income (loss) from continuing operations before non-vehicle related depreciation and amortization; any impairment charges; restructuring and other related charges; early extinguishment of debt costs; non-vehicle related interest; transaction-related costs, net; charges for legal matters, net, which includes amounts recorded in excess of $5 million related to class action lawsuits and personal injury matters; non-operational charges related to shareholder activist activity, which includes third-party advisory, legal and other professional fees; COVID-19 charges, net; cloud computing costs; other (income) expense, net, and income taxes.

We believe Adjusted EBITDA is useful as a supplemental measure in evaluating the performance of our operating businesses and in comparing our results from period to period. We also believe that Adjusted EBITDA is useful to investors because it allows them to assess our results of operations and financial condition on the same basis that management uses internally. Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for net income or other income statement data prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our presentation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly-titled measures used by other companies.

Year Ended December 31, 2023 vs. Year Ended December 31, 2022

Our consolidated results of operations comprised the following:
Year Ended
December 31,
20232022$ Change% Change
Revenues$12,008 $11,994 $14 — %
Expenses
Operating5,675 5,285 390 %
Vehicle depreciation and lease charges, net1,739 828 911 110 %
Selling, general and administrative1,408 1,348 60 %
Vehicle interest, net736 402 334 83 %
Non-vehicle related depreciation and amortization216 225 (9)(4 %)
Interest expense related to corporate debt, net:
Interest expense296 250 46 18 %
Early extinguishment of debt— n/m
Restructuring and other related charges11 19 (8)(42 %)
Transaction-related costs, net(3)(38 %)
Other (income) expense, net(7)10 n/m
Total expenses$10,094 $8,358 $1,736 21 %
Income before income taxes1,914 3,636 (1,722)(47 %)
Provision for income taxes279 880 (601)(68 %)
Net income$1,635 $2,756 $(1,121)(41 %)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests(8)11 n/m
Net income attributable to Avis Budget Group, Inc.$1,632 $2,764 $(1,132)(41 %)
__________
n/m    Not meaningful.

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Revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023 were consistent with the similar period in 2022, primarily due to a 5% increase in volume, partially offset by a 5% decrease in revenue per day, excluding exchange rate effects. Total expenses increased 21% for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the similar period in 2022, primarily due to increased fleet costs, interest costs, and the impact of inflation. Our effective tax rates for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were provisions of 14.6% and 24.2%, respectively. As a result of these items, our net income decreased by $1.1 billion compared to the similar period in 2022. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we reported earnings per diluted share of $42.08 and $57.16, respectively.

Operating expenses increased to 47.3% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 44.1% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to cost inflation. Vehicle depreciation and lease charges increased to 14.5% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 6.9% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to increased per unit fleet costs, excluding exchange rate effects, driven by increased fleet levels, increased depreciation rates, and a decrease in the gain on sale of vehicles. Selling, general and administrative costs increased to 11.7% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 11.2% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to increased marketing costs and inflation. Vehicle interest costs increased to 6.1% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 3.4% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to rising interest rates and additional funding for vehicles.
Following is a more detailed discussion of the results of each of our reportable segments and reconciliation of net income to Adjusted EBITDA:
 20232022
 RevenuesAdjusted EBITDARevenuesAdjusted EBITDA
Americas$9,347 $2,196 $9,474 $3,660 
International2,661 400 2,520 560 
Corporate and Other (a)
— (106)— (87)
Total Company$12,008 $2,490 $11,994 $4,133 
Reconciliation of net income to Adjusted EBITDA
20232022
Net income$1,635 $2,756 
Provision for income taxes279 880 
Income before income taxes$1,914 $3,636 
Add:Non-vehicle related depreciation and amortization216 225 
Interest expense related to corporate debt, net
Interest expense296 250 
Early extinguishment of debt— 
Restructuring and other related charges11 19 
Transaction-related costs, net
Other (income) expense, net (b)
(7)
Reported within operating expenses:
Cloud computing costs35 10 
COVID-19 charges, net— (9)
Legal matters, net
Adjusted EBITDA$2,490 $4,133 
__________
(a)    Includes unallocated corporate overhead which is not attributable to a particular segment.
(b)    Primarily consists of gains or losses related to our equity investment in a former subsidiary, offset by fleet related and certain administrative services provided to the same former subsidiary.

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Americas
20232022% Change
Revenues$9,347 $9,474 (1 %)
Adjusted EBITDA$2,196 $3,660 (40 %)

Revenues decreased 1% for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the similar period in 2022, primarily due to a 6% decrease in revenue per day, partially offset by a 5% increase in volume.

Operating expenses increased to 47.4% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 43.8% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to cost inflation. Vehicle depreciation and lease charges increased to 13.0% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 4.4% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to increased per-unit fleet costs, driven by increased fleet levels, increased depreciation rates, and a decrease in the gain on sale of vehicles. Selling, general and administrative costs were approximately 9.6% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, consistent with the similar period in 2022, primarily due to increased marketing costs, offset by a decrease in other selling, general and administrative costs. Vehicle interest costs increased to 6.6% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 3.7% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to rising interest rates and additional funding for vehicles.

Adjusted EBITDA decreased 40% for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the similar period in 2022, primarily due to higher per-unit fleet costs and inflationary pressures.
International
20232022% Change
Revenues$2,661 $2,520 %
Adjusted EBITDA$400 $560 (29 %)

Revenues increased 6% for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the similar period in 2022, primarily due to a 6% increase in volume and a $25 million positive impact from currency exchange rate movements, partially offset by a 1% decrease in revenue per day, excluding exchange rate effects.

Operating expenses increased to 45.6% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 44.3% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to cost inflation. Vehicle depreciation and lease charges increased to 19.7% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 16.4% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to increased per-unit fleet costs, excluding exchange rate effects, driven by increased fleet levels and increased depreciation rates. Selling, general and administrative costs increased to 15.4% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 15.0% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to increased marketing costs and inflation. Vehicle interest costs increased to 4.4% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 2.2% during the similar period in 2022, primarily due to rising interest rates and additional funding for vehicles.

Adjusted EBITDA decreased 29% for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the similar period in 2022, primarily due to higher per-unit fleet costs and inflationary pressures.


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Corporate and Other
20232022% Change
Revenues$— $— n/m
Adjusted EBITDA$(106)$(87)(22 %)
__________
n/m    Not meaningful.

Adjusted EBITDA decreased 22% for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the similar period in 2022, primarily due to higher selling, general and administrative expenses related to computer technology transformation costs, which are not attributable to a particular segment.

FINANCIAL CONDITION, LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
We present separately the financial data of our vehicle programs. These programs are distinct from our other activities as the assets under vehicle programs are generally funded through the issuance of debt that is collateralized by such assets. The income generated by these assets is used, in part, to repay the principal and interest associated with the debt. Cash inflows and outflows relating to the generation or acquisition of such assets and the principal debt repayment or financing of such assets are classified as activities of our vehicle programs. We believe it is appropriate to segregate the financial data of our vehicle programs because, ultimately, the source of repayment of such debt is the realization of such assets.
FINANCIAL CONDITION
As of December 31,
20232022Change
Total assets exclusive of assets under vehicle programs$9,590 $8,499 $1,091 
Total liabilities exclusive of liabilities under vehicle programs10,095 9,656 439 
Assets under vehicle programs22,979 17,428 5,551 
Liabilities under vehicle programs22,817 16,971 5,846 
Stockholders’ equity(343)(700)357 

The increase in assets exclusive of assets under vehicle programs compared to 2022 is principally related to the increase in operating lease right-of-use assets, deferred income taxes, other current assets and property and equipment. See Note 3 – Leases, Note 9 – Income Taxes, Note 10 – Other Current Assets and Note 11 – Property and Equipment, net to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

The increase in liabilities exclusive of liabilities under vehicle programs compared to 2022 is principally related to the increase in operating lease liabilities and corporate indebtedness from the issuance of senior notes. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources,” Note 3 – Leases and Note 13 – Long-term Corporate Debt and Borrowing Arrangements to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

The increases in assets and liabilities under vehicle programs are principally related to the increase in the size and cost of our vehicle rental fleet to meet demand.

The increase in stockholders’ equity compared to 2022 is principally related to comprehensive income, partially offset by our share repurchase activity.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Overview

Our principal sources of liquidity are cash on hand and our ability to generate cash through operations and financing activities, as well as available funding arrangements and committed credit facilities, each of which is discussed below.
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In July 2023, we issued €400 million of 7.250% euro-denominated Senior Notes due July 2030, at par, with interest payable semi-annually. In September 2023, we used net proceeds from the offering primarily to redeem all of the €300 million of our outstanding 4.125% euro-denominated Senior Notes due 2024 plus accrued interest.
In November 2023, we issued $500 million of 8.000% Senior Notes due February 2031, at 99.3% of face value, with interest payable semi-annually. Net proceeds were used to fully redeem our 4.500% euro-denominated Senior Notes due 2025 and a portion of our outstanding balance on our Term Loan due 2029, with the remainder being used for general corporate purposes.
During 2023, our Avis Budget Rental Car Funding (AESOP) subsidiary issued approximately $3.9 billion of asset-backed notes with expected final payment dates ranging from October 2026 to February 2029, and a weighted average interest rate of 5.81%. In January 2024, AESOP issued $1.2 billion of asset-backed notes to investors with an expected final payment date of June 2029 and a weighted average interest rate of 5.51%. The proceeds from these borrowings were used to fund the repayment of maturing vehicle-backed debt and the acquisition of rental cars in the United States.

In December 2023, we paid a special cash dividend of $10.00 per share to all holders of our common stock as of December 15, 2023, totaling approximately $355 million.

Our Board of Directors has authorized the repurchase of up to approximately $8.1 billion of our common stock under a plan originally approved in 2013 and subsequently expanded, most recently in February 2023. Our stock repurchases may occur through open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or trading plans pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 of the Exchange Act. The amount and timing of specific repurchases are subject to market conditions, applicable legal requirements, restricted payment capacity under our debt instruments and other factors. The repurchase program may be suspended, modified or discontinued at any time without prior notice. The repurchase program has no set expiration or termination date. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased approximately 4.3 million shares of common stock at a cost of approximately $889 million (excluding excise taxes due under the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022) under the program. As of December 31, 2023, approximately $802 million of authorization remained available to repurchase common stock under the program.
Cash Flows
Year Ended December 31, 2023 vs. Year Ended December 31, 2022
The following table summarizes our cash flows:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Change
Cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities$3,828 $4,707 $(879)
Investing activities(7,346)(4,299)(3,047)
Financing activities3,506 (360)3,866 
Effect of changes in exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents, program and restricted cash
14 (32)46 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents, program and restricted cash
16 (14)
Cash and cash equivalents, program and restricted cash, beginning of period
64262616 
Cash and cash equivalents, program and restricted cash, end of period
$644 $642 $

The decrease in cash provided by operating activities during 2023 compared with 2022 is primarily due to the decrease in our net income.

The increase in cash used in investing activities during 2023 compared with 2022 is primarily due to the increase in our net investment in vehicles.

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The increase in cash provided by financing activities during 2023 compared with 2022 is primarily due to the increase in our net borrowings under vehicle programs and the decrease in our common stock repurchases, offset by the increase in our payments of corporate borrowings.
We anticipate that our non-vehicle property and equipment additions will be approximately $285 million in 2024.
Debt and Financing Arrangements
At December 31, 2023, we had approximately $23.8 billion of indebtedness (including corporate indebtedness of approximately $4.8 billion and debt under vehicle programs of approximately $18.9 billion). For information regarding our debt and borrowing arrangements, see Note 1 – Basis of Presentation, Note 13 – Long-term Corporate Debt and Borrowing Arrangements, and Note 14 – Debt Under Vehicle Programs and Borrowing Arrangements to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
 LIQUIDITY RISK
Our primary liquidity needs include the procurement of rental vehicles to be used in our operations, servicing of corporate and vehicle-related debt and the payment of operating expenses. The present intention of management is to reinvest the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries indefinitely into our foreign operations. Our primary sources of funding are operating revenue, cash received upon the sale of vehicles, borrowings under our vehicle-backed borrowing arrangements and our senior revolving credit facility, and other financing activities.
Our liquidity has in the past been, and could in the future be, negatively affected by any financial market disruptions or the absence of a recovery or worsening of the United States and worldwide economies, which may result in unfavorable conditions in the mobility industry, in the asset-backed financing market and in the credit markets generally. We believe these factors have affected and could further affect the debt ratings assigned to us by credit rating agencies and the cost of our borrowings. Additionally, a worsening or prolonged downturn in the worldwide economy or a disruption in the credit markets could further impact our liquidity due to (i) decreased demand and pricing for vehicles in the used vehicle market, (ii) increased costs associated with, and/or reduced capacity or increased collateral needs under, our financings, (iii) the adverse impact of vehicle manufacturers being unable or unwilling to honor their obligations to repurchase or guarantee the depreciation on the related program vehicles and (iv) disruption in our ability to obtain financing due to negative credit events specific to us or affecting the overall debt market (see Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” for further discussion).
As of December 31, 2023, we had access to $555 million of available cash and cash equivalents and available borrowings under our revolving credit facility of approximately $261 million, providing us with access to an approximate $816 million of total liquidity.
Our liquidity position could also be negatively impacted if we are unable to remain in compliance with the consolidated first lien leverage ratio requirement and other covenants associated with our senior credit facilities and other borrowings. As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with the financial covenants governing our indebtedness. For additional information regarding our liquidity risks, see Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors”.

CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS

For contractual obligations for material cash requirements from known contractual and other obligations as part of a liquidity and capital resources discussion, see Note 3 – Leases, Note 13 – Long-term Corporate Debt and Borrowing Arrangements, Note 14 – Debt Under Vehicle Programs and Borrowing Arrangements, and Note 15 – Commitments and Contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
Accounting Policies

The results of the majority of our recurring operations are recorded in our financial statements using accounting policies that are not particularly subjective, nor complex. However, in presenting our financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), we are required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported therein. Several of the estimates and assumptions we are required to make relate to matters that are inherently uncertain as they relate to future events and/or events that are outside of our control. If there is a significant unfavorable change to current conditions, it could result in a material
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adverse impact to our consolidated results of operations, financial position and liquidity. We believe that the estimates and assumptions we used when preparing our financial statements were the most appropriate at that time. Presented below are those accounting policies that we believe require subjective and complex judgments that could potentially affect reported results.
Goodwill and Other Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets. We have reviewed the carrying value of our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment. In performing this review, we are required to make an assessment of fair value for our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets. When determining fair value, we utilize various assumptions, including the fair market trading price of our common stock and management’s projections of future cash flows, which include forecast of future revenue and Adjusted EBITDA. When appropriate, comparative market multiples and other factors are used to corroborate the discounted cash flow results. A change in these underlying assumptions will cause a change in the results of the tests and, as such, could cause the fair value to be less than the respective carrying amount. In such event, we would then be required to record a charge, which would impact earnings. We review the carrying value of goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually or more frequently if circumstances indicate that an impairment may have occurred.
Our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets are allocated among our reporting units. During 2023, 2022 and 2021, there was no impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets. See Note 7 – Intangible Assets to our Consolidated Financial Statements. For our Europe, Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”) reporting unit, the percentage by which the estimated fair value exceeded the carrying value as of October 1, 2023 was approximately 14% and the amount of goodwill allocated to our reporting unit was approximately $460 million. We will continue to closely monitor actual results versus our expectations, as well as any significant changes in events or conditions, and the resulting impact to our assumptions about future estimated cash flows, the discount rate and market multiples. In the future, failure to achieve our business plans, a significant deterioration of the macroeconomic conditions of the countries in which we operate, or significant changes in the assumptions and estimates that are used in our impairment testing for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets (such as the discount rate) could result in significantly different estimates of fair value that could trigger an impairment of the goodwill of our reporting units or intangible assets.

Vehicles. We present vehicles at cost, net of accumulated depreciation, on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. We record the initial cost of the vehicle, net of incentives and allowances from manufacturers. We acquire our rental vehicles either through repurchase and guaranteed depreciation programs with certain automobile manufacturers or outside of such programs. For rental vehicles purchased under such programs, we depreciate the vehicles such that the net book value on the date of sale or return to the manufacturers is intended to equal the contractual guaranteed residual values. For risk vehicles acquired outside of manufacturer repurchase and guaranteed depreciation programs, we depreciate based on the vehicles’ estimated residual market values at their expected dates of disposition. The estimation of residual values requires us to make assumptions regarding the age and mileage of the vehicle at the time of disposal, as well as expected used vehicle market conditions. We regularly evaluate estimated residual values and adjusts depreciation rates as appropriate. Differences between actual residual values and those estimated result in a gain or loss on disposal and are recorded as part of vehicle depreciation and lease charges, net, at the time of sale. See Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements. For a discussion of risk factors and assumptions relative to our vehicle valuations, refer to Item 1A, “Risk Factors”, included under Part 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Income Taxes. We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been reflected in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
We record net deferred tax assets to the extent we believe these assets will more likely than not be realized. In making such determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and recent results of operations. In the event we were to determine that we would be able to realize deferred income tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, we would make an adjustment to the valuation allowance which would reduce the provision for income taxes. Currently we do not record valuation allowances on the majority of
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our tax loss carryforwards as there are adequate deferred tax liabilities that could be realized within the carryforward period.
See Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Note 9 – Income Taxes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for more information regarding income taxes.
Public Liability, Property Damage and Other Insurance Liabilities. Insurance liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets include supplemental liability insurance, personal effects protection insurance, public liability, property damage and personal accident insurance claims for which we are self-insured. We estimate the required liability of such claims on an undiscounted basis utilizing an actuarial method that is based upon various assumptions which include, but are not limited to, our historical loss experience and projected loss development factors. The required liability is also subject to adjustment in the future based upon changes in claims experience, including changes in the number of incidents for which we are ultimately liable and changes in the cost per incident. See Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Adoption of New Accounting Pronouncements
For a description of our adoption of new accounting pronouncements and the impact thereof on our business, see Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
For a description of recently issued accounting pronouncements and the impact thereof on our business, see Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

 ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to a variety of market risks, including changes in currency exchange rates, interest rates and fuel prices. We manage our exposure to market risks through our regular operating and financing activities and, when deemed appropriate, through the use of derivative financial instruments, particularly currency forward contracts to manage and reduce currency exchange rate risk; swap contracts, futures and options contracts, to manage and reduce the interest rate risk related to our debt; and derivative commodity instruments to manage and reduce the risk of changing unleaded fuel prices.
We are exclusively an end user of these instruments. We do not engage in trading, market-making or other speculative activities in the derivatives markets. We manage our exposure to counterparty credit risk related to our use of derivatives through specific minimum credit standards, diversification of counterparties, and procedures to monitor concentrations of credit risk. Our counterparties are substantial investment and commercial banks with significant experience providing such derivative instruments.
Our total market risk is influenced by a wide variety of factors including the volatility present within the markets and the liquidity of the markets. There are certain limitations inherent in the sensitivity analyses discussed below. These “shock tests” are constrained by several factors, including the necessity to conduct the analysis based on a single point in time and the inability to include the complex market reactions that normally would arise from the market shifts modeled. For additional information regarding our borrowings and financial instruments, see Note 13 – Long-term Corporate Debt and Borrowing Arrangements, Note 14 – Debt Under Vehicle Programs and Borrowing Arrangements and Note 20 – Financial Instruments to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Currency Risk Management
We have exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations worldwide and particularly with respect to the Australian, Canadian and New Zealand dollars, the euro and British pound sterling. We use currency forward contracts and currency swap contracts to manage exchange rate risk that arises from certain intercompany transactions and from non-functional currency denominated assets and liabilities and earnings denominated in non-U.S. dollar currencies. Our currency forward contracts are often not designated as hedges and therefore changes in the fair value of these derivatives are recognized in earnings as they occur. We anticipate that such currency exchange rate risk will remain a market risk exposure for the foreseeable future.
We assess our market risk based on changes in currency exchange rates utilizing a sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis measures the potential impact on earnings, cash flows and fair values based on a hypothetical
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10% appreciation or depreciation in the value of the underlying currencies being hedged, against the U.S. dollar at December 31, 2023. With all other variables held constant, a hypothetical 10% change (increase or decrease) in currency exchange rates would not have a material impact on our 2023 earnings. Because unrealized gains or losses related to foreign currency forward and swap contracts are expected to be offset by corresponding gains or losses on the underlying exposures being hedged, when combined, these foreign currency contracts and the offsetting underlying commitments do not create a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Interest Rate Risk Management
Our primary interest rate exposure at December 31, 2023 was interest rate fluctuation in the United States due to its impact on variable rate borrowings and other interest rate sensitive liabilities. We use interest rate swaps and caps to manage our exposure to interest rate movements. We anticipate interest rate fluctuation will remain a primary market risk exposure for the foreseeable future.
We assess our market risk based on changes in interest rates utilizing a sensitivity analysis. Based on our interest rate exposures and derivatives as of December 31, 2023, we estimate that a 10% change in interest rates would not have a material impact on our 2023 earnings. Because gains or losses related to interest rate derivatives are expected to be offset by corresponding gains or losses on the underlying exposures being hedged, when combined, these interest rate contracts and the offsetting underlying commitments do not create a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Commodity Risk Management
We have commodity price exposure related to fluctuations in the price of fuel. We anticipate that such commodity risk will remain a market risk exposure for the foreseeable future. We determined that a hypothetical 10% change in the price of fuel would not have a material impact on our earnings as of December 31, 2023.

 ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

See Consolidated Financial Statements and Consolidated Financial Statement Index commencing on Page F-1 hereof.

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

None.

 ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

(a)    Disclosure Controls and Procedures. Under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, our management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)). Based on such evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of the end of the period covered by this annual report.

(b)    Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Our management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013). Based on this assessment, our management believes that, as of December 31, 2023, our internal control over financial reporting was effective. The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 has been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm. Their attestation report is included below.

(c)    Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. During the fourth quarter of 2023, there was no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under
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the Exchange Act) that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of
Avis Budget Group, Inc.
Parsippany, New Jersey

Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Avis Budget Group, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023 of the Company and our report dated February 16, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.

Basis for Opinion

The Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
New York, New York
February 16, 2024

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ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION

During the three months ended December 31, 2023, no director or Section 16 officer of the Company adopted or terminated a "Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement" or "non-Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement," as each term is defined in Item 408(a) of Regulation S-K.

ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

Not Applicable.


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PART III
 ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference from our definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after December 31, 2023.

 ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference from our definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after December 31, 2023.

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference from our definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after December 31, 2023.

 ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference from our definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after December 31, 2023.

 ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference from our definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after December 31, 2023.
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PART IV
 ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

 ITEM 15(A)(1). FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

See Consolidated Financial Statements and Consolidated Financial Statements Index commencing on page F-1 hereof.

 ITEM 15(A)(2). FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

See Schedule II – Valuation and Qualifying Accounts for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 commencing on page G-1 hereof.

 ITEM 15(A)(3). EXHIBITS

See Exhibit Index commencing on page H-1 hereof.

ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY

None.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
AVIS BUDGET GROUP, INC.
By:/s/ CATHLEEN DEGENOVA
Cathleen DeGenova
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
Date:February 16, 2024

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
SignatureTitleDate
/s/ JOSEPH A. FERRAROPresident and Chief Executive OfficerFebruary 16, 2024
(Joseph A. Ferraro)
/s/ IZILDA P. MARTINSExecutive Vice President and Chief Financial OfficerFebruary 16, 2024
(Izilda P. Martins)
/s/ CATHLEEN DEGENOVAVice President and Chief Accounting OfficerFebruary 16, 2024
(Cathleen DeGenova)
/s/ BERNARDO HEESExecutive Chairman of the Board of DirectorsFebruary 16, 2024
(Bernardo Hees)
/s/ JAGDEEP PAHWAVice Chairman of the Board of DirectorsFebruary 16, 2024
(Jagdeep Pahwa)
/s/ ANU HARIHARANDirectorFebruary 16, 2024
(Anu Hariharan)
/s/ LYNN KROMINGADirectorFebruary 16, 2024
(Lynn Krominga)
/s/ GLENN LURIEDirectorFebruary 16, 2024
(Glenn Lurie)
/s/ KARTHIK SARMADirectorFebruary 16, 2024
(Karthik Sarma)

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INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Page

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of
Avis Budget Group, Inc.
Parsippany, New Jersey

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Avis Budget Group, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and the schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 16, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.


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Vehicles - Depreciation Expense - United States Risk Vehicles - Refer to Notes 2 and 8 to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company records rental vehicles at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. The initial cost of the vehicles is recorded net of incentives and allowances from manufacturers. Rental vehicles acquired by the Company outside of manufacturer repurchase and guaranteed depreciation programs are referred to as risk vehicles and the carrying values of these risk vehicles are depreciated based upon the vehicles’ estimated residual values at their expected dates of disposition. The estimation of residual values for risk vehicles requires the Company to make assumptions regarding factors which include, but are not limited to, the anticipated age of the vehicles and market conditions for used vehicles at the time of disposal. The Company regularly evaluates estimated residual values and adjusts vehicle depreciation rates as appropriate. Any adjustments to depreciation are made prospectively.

Given the volume of risk vehicles in the United States and the significant estimation uncertainty and judgments made by management to calculate the estimated residual values of these risk vehicles, auditing the estimated residual values of United States risk vehicles and related vehicle depreciation expense required extensive audit effort to develop an independent expectation of residual values and depreciation expense, and a high degree of auditor judgment was required when performing audit procedures and evaluating the results of those procedures. The significant estimation uncertainty was primarily due to management’s assumptions regarding the impact of future consumer demand and general economic conditions on expected pricing of used vehicles. Additionally, auditing the calculation of the estimated residual values for United States risk vehicles was challenging due to the volume of data inputs utilized in management’s calculation, including historical sales data and data specific to the Company’s current fleet.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures to assess the reasonableness of the estimated residual values and vehicle depreciation expense related to United States risk vehicles included the following, among others:

We evaluated the appropriateness and consistency of the Company’s methods, significant assumptions and judgments to calculate the estimated residual values of risk vehicles and the expected dates of disposition.

We tested the effectiveness of controls over vehicle depreciation expense related to risk vehicles and management’s review of the significant assumptions and judgments to calculate the estimated residual values of risk vehicles, including those over the Company’s monitoring of residual values and used vehicle market conditions.

We assessed the reasonableness of the estimated residual values of risk vehicles by performing the following procedures on a selection of risk vehicles:

We tested the underlying historical data that served as the basis for the Company’s calculation of the estimated residual values to evaluate the reasonableness of the inputs.

We tested the mathematical accuracy of the Company’s calculation of the estimated residual values and vehicle depreciation expense rates.

We tested significant assumptions and judgments used in the Company’s calculation by developing an independent expectation of residual values and compared them to the estimated residual values calculated by the Company. Our independent expectation was calculated using our professional judgment by reference to third-party data, information produced by the Company, subsequent vehicle sales, and inquiries of management.

We searched for contradictory evidence associated with the significant assumptions and judgments made by management based on our knowledge of the industry and review of third-party industry data.

We developed an independent expectation of depreciation expense based on, but not limited to, the vehicles’ age and results of our residual value testing and compared it to the amount recorded by the Company as depreciation expense.


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Self-Insurance Reserves - Public Liability and Property Damage Claims - United States - Refer to Note 2 to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company is self-insured for public liability and property damage claims. These self-insurance reserves represent an estimate for both reported claims not yet paid and claims incurred but not yet reported. The estimated reserve requirements for such claims are calculated on an undiscounted basis using actuarial methods and various assumptions which include, but are not limited to, historical loss experience and projected loss development factors. The required liability is subject to adjustment in the future based upon changes in claims experience, including changes in the number of incidents for which the Company is ultimately liable and changes in the cost per incident.

Given the volume of public liability and property damage claims in the United States and the subjectivity of estimating the related self-insurance reserves for reported claims not yet paid and claims incurred but not yet reported due to uncertain exposure and projected loss development, performing audit procedures to evaluate whether these self-insurance reserves were appropriately recorded as of December 31, 2023 required a significant degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our actuarial specialists.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to United States public liability and property damage self-insurance reserves included the following, among others:

We tested the effectiveness of controls over management’s review of significant assumptions, key inputs and methods used to calculate the estimate of the reported claims not yet paid and claims incurred but not yet reported.

We tested the underlying data that served as the basis for the Company’s actuarial analysis, including historical claims, to test the reasonableness of the inputs to the actuarial estimate.

With the assistance of our actuarial specialists, we developed an independent estimate of the self-insurance reserves, including assessment of loss data and claim development factors, and compared our estimate to management’s estimate. In addition, we performed the following:

Evaluated the reasonableness of the methodologies used in management’s estimate based on actuarial methods followed in the insurance industry associated with such liabilities.

Evaluated the reasonableness of the assumptions used in management’s estimate by comparing prior-year assumptions of expected development and ultimate loss to actuals incurred during the current year to identify potential bias in the determination of these liabilities.


/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
New York, New York
February 16, 2024

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1997.

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Avis Budget Group, Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In millions, except per share data)

Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Revenues$12,008 $11,994 $9,313 
Expenses
Operating5,675 5,285 4,255 
Vehicle depreciation and lease charges, net1,739 828 1,197 
Selling, general and administrative1,408 1,348 1,145 
Vehicle interest, net736 402 313 
Non-vehicle related depreciation and amortization216 225 272 
Interest expense related to corporate debt, net:
Interest expense296 250 218 
Early extinguishment of debt5  136 
Restructuring and other related charges11 19 64 
Transaction-related costs, net5 8 5 
Other (income) expense, net3 (7) 
Total expenses10,094 8,358 7,605 
Income before income taxes1,914 3,636 1,708 
Provision for income taxes279 880 425 
Net income1,635 2,756 1,283 
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests3 (8)(2)
Net income attributable to Avis Budget Group, Inc.$1,632 $2,764 $1,285 
Earnings per share
Basic$42.57 $58.41 $19.79 
Diluted$42.08 $57.16 $19.44 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Avis Budget Group, Inc.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(In millions)

 
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net income$1,635 $2,756 $1,283 
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests3 (8)(2)
Net income attributable to Avis Budget Group, Inc.1,632 2,764 1,285 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
Currency translation adjustments:
Currency translation adjustments, net of tax of $7, $(11) and $(20), respectively
27 (46)(35)
Reclassification of currency translation adjustments to earnings  11 
Cash flow hedges:
Net unrealized holding gains (losses), net of tax of $(2), $(20), and $(6), respectively
5 57 18 
Reclassification of cash flow hedges to earnings, net of tax of $5, $(2), and $(5), respectively
(13)7 14 
Minimum pension liability adjustment:
Pension and post-retirement benefits, net of tax of $6, $(4), and $(13), respectively
(18)11 39 
Reclassification of pension and post-retirement benefits to earnings, net of tax of $(1), $(2), and $(2), respectively
4 3 7 
5 32 54 
Total comprehensive income attributable to Avis Budget Group, Inc.$1,637 $2,796 $1,339 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Avis Budget Group, Inc.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In millions, except par value)
As of December 31,
20232022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$555 $570 
Receivables (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $87 and $86, respectively)
900 810 
Other current assets684 506 
Total current assets2,139 1,886 
Property and equipment, net719 594 
Operating lease right-of-use assets2,654 2,405 
Deferred income taxes1,868 1,379 
Goodwill1,099 1,070 
Other intangibles, net670 666 
Other non-current assets441 499 
Total assets exclusive of assets under vehicle programs9,590 8,499 
Assets under vehicle programs:
Program cash85 70 
Vehicles, net21,240 15,961 
Receivables from vehicle manufacturers and other443 421 
Investment in Avis Budget Rental Car Funding (AESOP) LLC—related party1,211 976 
22,979 17,428 
Total assets$32,569 $25,927 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable and other current liabilities$2,627 $